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Blockchain Interview Questions


1) What are the many different types of blockchain?
Blockchain can be one of the following three categories:
Public blockchain
Private blockchain
Consortium blockchain
2) Is blockchain a transactional database?
Blockchain is a diversified database used to store data that works on peer-to-peer network concept rather than transactional database that works on integrity constraint concept. Blockchain is not a database technology like oracle, sql server, mysql, mongodb, postgres etc instead this is a network of servers/computers/machines that are used to store records and all these records are visible to all of the peer machines in this network
3) What is a nonce in a blockchain environment?
This is a random 32 bit number that is 4 byte in size. This random number is used only once in blockchain. This unique number is used to create a hash in a blockchain environment. As this is random this is non iterative and not a fixed number. The nonce is present in each and every node in a blockchain environment
4) What nodes form part of ethereum network?
Ethereum network is comprised of two types of nodes namely light-weight node,full node.
5) What is a ethereum network?
This is a public blockchain network. All decentralized peer-to-peer applications and organizations run with ethereum network as base
6) What are the major projects going under hyperledger umbrella?
Following are the projects going under the umbrella
a) Fabric
b) Burrow
c) Iroha
d) Indy
e) Sawtooth
7) How is cryptocoin price decided?
This is determined by demand and supply cycles.It is the market dynamics that determines coin price.As with normal economics id demand is more and supply is less price is high and viceversa
8) Is blockchain a web technology?
Nope. Blockchain is not a web technology but rather a network of computers/servers/machines that store records and the records retained are visible to all in the network
9) What are the implementations of distributed blockchain?
The implementations of distributed blockchain are primarily used a virtual currency. The implementations include Bitcoin,Ethereum etc. Bitcoin is having a public ledger whereas ethereum is used to create smart contracts
10) Is ripple a implementation of distributed blockchain?
Nope. Ripple is an payment, settlement system used by banks, payment providers, digital asset exchanges to transact money globally using an unique distributed consensus mechanism
11) What is bitcoin?
Bitcoin is the first implementation of distributed blockchain having a public
12) How many cryptocurrencies are in existence now?
More than 1000 cryptocurrencies are available based on blockchain technology having distributed ledger
13) What are the tasks of minors in a blockchain transaction?
Minors perform range of tasks including initiate transactions, confirm the transactions
14) What is the unique task of minors?
Though minors can initiate a transaction like an user they can also confirm a transaction. Minors are the only ones who can verify the transaction and henceforth this is a major task of minors
15) In a blockchain implementation nodes are users. Can any user initiate a transfer in a blockchain environment?
Yes. Any users can initiate a transfer. As far as verification goes only minors can verify transactions
16) Is smart contract constant with ethereum?
Nope. Ethereum smart contracts can be programmed as per the needs. Ethereum makes use of the cryptocurrency ether
17) What are the uses of ether?
Ether is the cryptocurrency used by ethereum. This is used for paying general transaction and services associated with ethereum smart contracts. It is also used to buy gas. This is again used to pay for computation within the EVM
18) What is nonrepudiation?
This is a main assurance in an ethereum network wherein there is an assurance that someone cannot deny something.It This is a random 32 bit number that is 4 byte in size. This random number is used only once in blockchain. This unique number is used to create a hash in a blockchain environment. As this is random this is non iterative and not a fixed number. The nonce is present in each and every node in a blockchain environment
19) What makes blockchain technology more secure?
Decentralization makes it more secure. It makes it impossible to corrupt all the miners at the same time owing to de-centralization.High-end cryptographic techniques like RSA and miner’s proof of work to enhance security make this possible
20) What are some tasks that make use of blockchain technology?
Following are some of the tasks that make use of blockchain technology :
Track digital assets
Create Secure ledger
Store immutable data objects
Create a public ledger visible to all
21) How many etheres are given as a reward for solving a mathematical puzzle in a ethereum blockchain?
In ethereum 5 etheres are given as reward for solving a mathematical puzzle
22) Has ethereum blockchain been hacked atleast once?
Nope. Ethereum blockchain has never been hacked. However, the smart contract had vulnerability
23) Give details on what is a blockchain client :-
Blockchain client is a software that :
a) Verifies the transaction
b) Executes the blockchain protocol logic
c) Has the responsibility for generating the transactions as per the instructions
d) Is being used by nodes and miners to connect to the blockchain network
24) What is the cryptocurrency used in ethereum network? What is its use?
It is the ether that is being made use of by ethereum network. It becomes necessary to be paid for every operation performed in a ethereum blockchain for which ether is used
25) What is a hash rate?
The speed at which a compute is completing an operation in a bitcoin code is referred to as hash rate.
26) What hashrate is better during mining?
Higher hasrate is recommended

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Puppet Interview Questions


Puppet is the most popular software configuration tool that forms part of any interview starting from fresher, middle level to experienced IT professionals owing to migration to Devops culture. Here are useful interview questions that will help you with preparation
1) Which operator can convert an array into a comma separated list of arguments?
A.*(splat)
2) While writing a new class named mongodb::master which module path should contain definition class?
The class modules and codes reside in the manifests directory. mongodb/manifests/master.pp
3) For running mcollective commands which user will you make use of?
Make use of user peadmin
4) Who can issue mcollective commands as they control the puppet master?
Make use of user peadmin
5) In which directory of the module structure does the test function written to test functionality of the application reside?
It resides in the directory examples
6) Which is a control expression of an unless statement?
Make use of undef values
7) Mcollective makes use of ports to accept inbound traffic connection requests from puppet agents. Which port is being made use of for this purpose?
Any host used to invoke commands must be able to reach MCollective on this port. The PE Console accepts HTTPS traffic from end-users on this port 61613
8) You have monolithic installations. In which port does puppetdb accept incoming traffic?
In port 8081
9) What are the many different ways in which you can apply puppet manifests to the nodes?
Make use of one of the following methods :
a) Using Hiera
b) Puppet Enterprise Console
c) Include in manifests/site.pp
10) What kind of operands are accepted on either side of chained arrows?
a) Resource declarations
b) Resource references
c) Resource Collectors
11) You have to create complex expressions in resource collectors. Which of the operators can be used for this purpose?
We can make use of anyone of the following operators :
a) and
b) or
c) !=
12) As per puppet language style guide what should a comment explain?
It should explain why of the code
13) What is proper format of comments as per puppet guide?
As per puppet language style guide comments must be hash and not /* */
14) Which command is used to view all certificates waiting to be signed?
Make use of the command puppet cert list -a
15) Which status is invalid in puppet reporting in the Puppet::Transaction::Event?
The status ready is not a valid status
16) Can a resource have multiple namevars?
Yes. There can be
17) [master] environmentpath = $codedir/override_environments:$codedir/environments Is this a valid reference for the code directory?
Yes. This is a valid reference for the code directory
18) How will you make use of mcollective to trigger a puppet run on all your CentOS linux nodes?
Using command mco puppet runonce –wf operatingsystem=CentOS
19) How will you make use of fact option in puppet?
In puppet enterprise the fact option is to be used with with fact option –wf (or) -F
20) What is a fact in puppet enterprise?
It is a standard puppet facts available in puppet manifests
21) Which attributes do you need to make use of to make exec command Idempotent?
We need the following attributes:
a) unless
b) onlyif
c) creates
22) Which are valid statements of the producing and consuming service?
a) produces
b) consumes
c) export
23) Which operators take precedence in puppet?
The operator ! takes precedence
24) Which mcollective subcommand is the general purpose client that can invoke actions from any MCollective agent plugin ?
Make use of command rpc
25) Does variant datatype accept undef type as a parameter that will lead to resulting datatype match the undef?
Yes . It does
26) Give details on some catalog statements :-
a) realize
b) include
c) require
d) contain
27) Which key types are accepted by priority lookup in hiera 3.x?
a) top-level lookup keys
b) qualiqed keys
28) Which abstract datatype will not match undef default?
It is scalar datatype
29) Which abstract datatype will match undef default?
It includes datatypes like the ones below :
a) variant
b) data
c) any
d) vector
30) You have been asked to install puppetlabs-apache module from another module repository. Which command would you make use of for this purpose?
Using command puppet module install –module_repository http://dev-forge.example.com puppetlabs-apache
31) Which categories does appear in the report of Puppet::Util::Metric object?
a) resources
b) events
c) time
d) changes
32) Which component is not a component of the mcollective orchestration internals?
It is the rpc
33) Which component is a component of the mcollective orchestration internals?
a) mco
b) pe-actiemq
c) pe-mcollective
34) In $facts hash which variables are available?
It is the variable $clientversion
35) Which $facts hash variable has current version of puppet agent information and are available as top-score variable as well?
It is the variable $clientversion

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Digital marketing interview questions


Digital marketing is comprised of many major components. This starts with creation and marketing of content relevant to business called content marketing, email marketing, SEO marketing, social media marketing, PPC marketing to name a few.
Is it possible to achieve real great results with real good marketing both online and offline. Now, lets take the major component of digital marketing content marketing and see how accountability does add real value to get best results.
To put it in simple terms, lets consider a newbie who starts a blog today. They will have lots of questions. To start with they will think how frequently should I create new posts and post it in the blog. If they choose to apply the principle of accountability creating atleast one original, unique, good quality, search engine optimized psot per day will help them keep themselves class apart and stay ahead of competitors.
As such it is the accountability that helps them develop blogging as a habit that will help them grow their blog with constant, consistent effort
When can I start my digital marketing?
Digital marketing also called as internet marketing should start even before launch of business
1) Create your unique, content rich blog
2) Post at a minimum 100+ great quality, unique posts. This may take from 1 to 3 months (depending on your frequency of blogging). We recommend 45 days time to achieve this task
3) Create a email subscription on day 1. I’ve insisting this because it is the real tool to build a user base achieve success in long run
4) Think about an affordable promotional offer. Best promotional offer will be a free e-book, newsletter etc
5) Add the promotional offer to your website
6) Perform search engine optimization following simple SEO tips
7) Now your website is ready. This is equivalent to Version 1 of a product (say a piece of software)
8) Now make use of affiliate marketing to promote your blog/website
How can you go branded online in 3 minutes?
An entrepreneur aspires to build a brand. Brand recognition comes with proper online presence. Every business be it service, product manufacturing, retail needs online presence. The web spider binds us together and help us acquire business in less than 2 minutes. Business online builds good reputation.
At the beginning it might sound scary to figure out how you can take your business online. Many web design companies quote hefty amount that makes you hesitant to proceed further with launching your business online.
To help you all with launching your business online lets give easy instructions that will help you take your brand online
1) Register a domain – This can be as low as $1. This can be done with popular hosting providers like Godaddy. A reputed brand in itself, that has been in existence for more than a decade, godaddy always stands class apart with their quality of service, uptime, availability. Our recommendation would be to register a domain with godaddy. As a new year bonanza enjoy this exclusive offer from Godaddy for learnersreference.com members. This offer doesn’t last longer. Don’t miss it
2) Get a proper hosting account – Again godaddy helps you get 100% uptime. We have been using it for more than 6 years without any problem. Also, godaddy offers lots of interesting hosting plans that includes as low as $1 per month for single website , shared hosting, dedicated VPS hosting and many more
If you are looking to pull more traffic there are popular web hosting providers like siteground that does a fantastic job
3) Choose a very very easy to use CMS – You can install wordpress that comes extermely handy. When you make use of godaddy you can install at the click of a mouse. Most of the hosting providers do offer cpanel option , wordpress installer that helps in blog install in less than 2 mins
4) Create an email subscriber list – This is the primary thing that you should really focus on starting day 1. For a beginner I recommend Google’s feedburner that comes 100% free. All you need is a valid gmail account. Once you have a gmail account log into www.feedburner.google.com, create a feed, create an email subscription list, add to website and start retaining visitors as customers
What to expect from professional digital media marketing?
World is going digital and number of internet users grow day by day. With this growing base it becomes mandatory for every business to go digital to retain their market share.
In the past if the website belongs to reputed brand, this will automatically pull traffic. However,with current internet demography it goes over and beyond owning a website. As such a professional is expected to include some of the essential ingredients
1) About us page with brief history of business
2) Contact Us page
3) Blog with news updates on business. This can even include press releases provided the company has gone public
4) Shopping cart of the business sells products. This will be selling of products online by themselves in addition to listing bands in common e-commerce websites like amazon.com etc
5) Social accounts – This includes official business page in social networks like facebook, twitter, linkedin, googleplus, pinterest to name a few. Many firms employ social media manager on part-time as well ass full-time basis to manage their social accounts
Once the product is ready to be launched into market, SEO also called search engine optimization plays a prominent role in helping business find a prominent online business space. Now, comes the digital media marketing
What is digital media marketing?
This includes all efforts and activities that helps business grow in online space. It is essentially composed of following components
1) Content Marketing – This is a good old concept that had been in place offline all these years. Essential media business on news paper , magazines can be considered real good examples of content marketing. In digital media space, content is the king and a content rich website wins over others. Content marketing starts with creation of original, unique, good quality articles that are relevant, evergreen and is usually provided as articles in business websites. To create professional content training in content marketing comes really handy.
Content marketing has grown from blog content marketing until upto video blogging (i.e) creation and publication of good quality, relevant videos in youtube the best video streaming website with millions of user base. Firms hire people who have natural tendency for writing and this is a good freelancing career option for many
2) Email Marketing – Once a content is created it needs to reach relevant userbase. This comes in form of feedburner feeds, newsletter that automates the sharing of posts published on a particular day to relevant audience. Email marketing also involves mailing marketing emails to current users, prospective customers etc. This can be done with professional email marketing training as well
3) SEO – Search engine optimization is the heart and soul of online business. Learn the strategies that helps google spider index your articles and push this to top slot. Training in SEO typically involves finding relevant keywords, creating good quality content, using proper post titles, adding proper tags to make the content grow
4) Social Media Marketing – There is a overlap of social media marketing with above mentioned marketing. This involves marketing business in social media like facebook, twitter, linkedin etc. Also this becomes a platform to interact directly with audience. Professional training is offered on social media marketing as well
Look for professional training in digital media marketing in full as well as in modules

How will you create content with full interest for best success?
Content creation and media marketing are the core pillars upon which online branding and success of any business depends on. It would be better to focus on productivity while creating content for digital media marketing
1) Use desktop sticky notes – The bright beautiful sticky notes from windows is a boon for any goal setter. Write simple goal in sticky notes before going to bed. It would be interesting if you write one goal in one stick note. This will be writing down one thing in one piece of paper
2) Pick one topic while creating post- Pick a random sticky note and start creating post on this. If you dont know what to blog the first line of your blogpost can be same as title of the post. This is to overcome boredom during blogging.
3) Fast blogging with mistakes agreeable – Don’t interrupt your thoughts. Write down whatever does pop-up. Don’t focus on spelling mistake. This is like running in treadmill. Once done, drink a glass of water and check for spelling mistakes. Correct this, highlight needed areas, post it
4) Automate all your social media publishing – I use free Jetpack wordpress plugin for this purpose. I’ll discuss in detail about this plugin. This automatically publishes to all social media and takes this cumbersome task off your shoulder
5) Google likes perseverance – As part of SEO google always expects fresh, evergreen content. Hence, creating new content as well as keeping existing content up-to-date are critically important. From google analytics pick top posts, maintain an excel on top posts, note down the ones that cna be enhanced – say if you write on plugins, there can be enhancements, new releases etc. this means that you improve your posts that has top spot. This will make google believe that you are perfect at maintaining your content and will be given preferential treatment

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HL7 Interview Questions


1) A message is sent by sending application. When new MSH segment is constructed in response to original message by responding application what are the rules used to create initial message? i. In particular MSH-7 date/time of message and MSH-10 message control ID refers to the response message; they are not echoes of the fields in the initial message ii. MSH -5 receiving application, MSH-6 receiving facility, MSH-11 processing id contains codes that are copied from MSH-3 sending application, MSH-4 sending facility and MSH-11 processing ID in the initial message
2) What components are ignored while receiving HL7 messages and converting their contents to data values? Ignore segments, fields, components,sub-components and extra repetitions of field that are present but were not expected
3) What happens while receiving HL7 messages and converting their contents to data values?
a) Ignore segments, fields, components, sub-components and extra repetitions of field that are present but were not expected
b) Treat fields and components that are expected but were not included in a segment as not present
c) Treat segments that were expected but are not present as consisting entirely of fields that are not present
4) What is the name of the delimiter that is defined in the second field of the MSH segment?
Encoding characters
5) In original mode, which acknowledgement code is returned by the receiver if the originating message passes original syntactic validation but then is not processed successfully?
AE the Application Error code is returned
6) In original mode , which acknowledgement code is returned by the receiver if the originating message has an invalid value for message type, version ID , or processing control ID?
AR the Application Reject
7) In original mode which acknowledgement code is returned by the receiver if the originating message is processed successfully?
Application Accept AA
8) The four characters of MSH-2 contain the following four delimiters component separator, repetition separator, sub-component separator, escape character always in what order?
Component separator, repetition separator, sub-component separator, escape character
9) What does a message profile contain?
A message profile contains the definition of the transmitted data
10) In the field definition calls for a field to be broken into components what rules are used?
Following rules are used:
a. If more than one component is include they are separated by the component separator
b. Components that are present but null are represented by the characters “”
c. Components that are not present at the end of a field need not be represented by component separator
11) What is the encoding character in the following message segment given below
MSH|^~&|MegaReg|UABHospC|ImgOrdMgr|UABImgCtr|20010529090131-0500||ADT^A01|01052901|P|2.3.5 ?
The second segment in a message segment MSH-2 is the encoding character `^~&`
12) Give details on HL7 technical correction rules :-
Set of HL7 technical correction rules determine the technical corrections that can be applied between versions of HL7. IT gets done on a case-by-case basis.
Technical correction is possible in one or more of the following scenarios
1) Spelling corrections
2) Errors from external table imports like transcription errors
3) Examples with mistakes in prior versions of HL7
4) Problem (or) issues with descriptions
5) If there is an inconsistency between segment attribute table and field narrative it needs correction
6) Problem with section reference
13) What is HL7 RIM?
HL7 RIM is the abbreviation of Reference Information Model (RIM). HL7 version 3 is the latest version of HL7. Information on latest RIM from HL7 is documented in its normative editions latest being 2012
14) What happens when we delete the anchoring segment of the segment group?
All information in repeating segment group is deleted
15) What is a HL7 abstract message definition?
HL7 Control chapter deals with the set of generic rules that do apply to all messages. These rules are not confined to specific messages as such. These rules form basics of message construction, the type of data to be sent with each of them, the inter-relationship among messages. As these rules are pure application layer rules the level 7 rules this is also called abstract message definition
They form basics of constructing messages that applications particularly in a healthcare setup do make use of to interact with each other
16) Which segment allows for greater descriptions of erraneous conditions?
ERR segment
17) What is the purpose of FTS ?
FTS the file trailer segment defines the end of a file
18) Can we associate the trigger event with more than once with message type?
Yes, we can do that. A message type can always be associated with more than one trigger event
19) What are the many different parts of a message?
a) element
b) datatype
c) field
d) component
20) What is a trigger event?
Trigger event is a real world event that triggers the messages between systems in healthcare. HL7 is a standard. All others form part of message
21) The ORU message type is used to transmit information related to patients. What is transmitted using ORU message type?
Observation results
22) What are the responsibilities of HL7 standard in a software implementation?
HL7 takes care of data security, interface engine
23) What messages (or) message constituents can be changed?
Field datatype, data type component, descriptive text name of messages are the message constituent that can be changed
24) Which are the components of HD datatype?
Universal ID type, Universal ID, Namespace ID
25) Is Name of coding system component of HD datatype?
Nope
26) What can’t be changed as per HL7 compatibility rules?
segment group name
27) What can be changed as per HL7 compatibility rules?
Messages, message constituents
28) Which are basic type of messages defined in scheduling transaction set?
Request transaction, query transaction, unsolicited transaction
29) What is a trigger event?
An event in the real world of healthcare which creates the need for data to flow among systems
30) What is covered in HL7 message definitions?
a) adding messages
b) adding message constituents
c) changing messages
d) changing message constituents
31) In MSH what does the field MSH-6 represent?
Receiving facility
32) Which of the following fields from MSH segment have unique identifier used to relate the message response to the initial message?
MSH-10 message control ID
33) In MSH segment what does the field MSH-11 represent?
Processing ID
34) With what is a message type associated?
A message type in HL7 is associated with more than one trigger event
35) What are the capabilities expected to be provided by communication environment while integration using HL7?
Error free transmission, character conversion, message length
36) What are the modes of acknowledgement in HL7?
a. Application ACK
b. Accept ACK
37) What is the meaning of segments R,B,O,C?
Here is the meaning of many different segments :
R- required
B – left for the sake of backward compatibility with previous version of HL7
O – Optional
C- conditional
38) How many segments can a HL7 message contain. What is maximum limit?
120 is the maximum number of segments that a HL7 message can have
39) Which segment in HL7 contains the message control ID to be used by receiving system in message acknowledge segment MSA?
MSH-10 is the field that contains the message control ID. This field can be number or any other identifier. This is used to uniquely identify the message. It is used by receiving system to be used with MSA
40) Which segment defines number of batches contained in a file ?
FTS-1 is the file batch count segment. It is the field that contains details on number of batches contained in a file
41) When square brackets appear around the name of a segment [](or around a group of segment names) what does it mean?
It means that segment or group is optional
42) Given the following abstract message definition take the following example of an HL7 message of type ORM in response to the ADT message and check if it conforms to the AMS ?
Nope. Message control id is the different as that for the ADT or ACK message examples
43) You have been asked to choose between dedicated proprietory interface vs HL7. What advantages/disadvantages can you think of?
Dedicated proprietary interface scope becomes easy whereas HL7 scope definition is not easy. However in long run it is the best solution. Dedicated proprietory interface can be targeted to environment in which it operates. Dedicated proprietory interface can be optimized in its operating environment. HL7 interface has a broad scope and require more effort to define and constrain, but upon clearly defining scope it becomes easy to implement, maintain and extend
44) In response to a specific query which messages are not sent from an user or an application?
Unsolicited messages are not sent in response to a query from an user or application
45) What is the scope of HL7?
HL7 is a standard and its scope starts with specification of messages between application systems, determining communication environment including protocols like TCP/IP and triggering events. Specification of messages between application systems. Communication environment. Triggering events
46) In MSH segment what does the field MSA-4 represent?
Expected sequence number
47) In MSH segment what does the field MSH-3 represent?
Sending application
48) What is the use of MSH-25 segment?
Receiving network address
49) Which segment allows for unambiguous identification of a patient using one or more identifiers?
PID the Patient Information segment
50) Which field in message segment points to the location of message definition in the standard?
The MSH-9 segment is used for this purpose
51) In OSI model in which level of OSI does HL7 operate?
The seventh layer Application layer. HL7 operates on 7th layer the application layer
52) Give name of a standard that defines a series of predefined logical formats of packaging healthcare data in the form of messages to be transmitted among computer application systems :-
HL7 standard from hl7.org is designed to help application systems talk to each other. Starting with healthcare it has started gaining popularity among financial systems as well
53) What is purpose of A01 event?
A01 is basically used to trigger events related to patient admission. Some if its usage includes :
a) The pharmacy system that a patient has been admitted
b) The nursing system that the patient has been admitted
c) The finance system of the start of billing period
54) Which segment is mandatory in HL7 message?
The mandatory segment happens to be MSH
55) Give some optional segments in a HL7 message :-
ZAA,NTE, DSC
56) What does FTS signify?
FTS signifies the end of field
57) How do you know if a message is encoded using a different character set in a localized environment e.g French, German?
Choose answer:
The character set to be used can be specified in the MSH segment MSH-18
58) In enhanced mode which acknowledgement code is returned by the receiver if the originating message passes original syntactic validation but then cannot be accepted for same reason say for example the value of sequence number is invalid?
The code returned is CE the commit error
59) Which one among these escape sequences represents start highlighting?
Make use of the escape sequence H
60) An EKG waveform could be encoded in which of the following HL7 datatypes?
Using ED – Encapsulated Data
61) What is the specified maximum field length for a field of datatype IS?
20
62) In the segment attribute tables what information is provided in the column labeled DT?
The basic building block used to construct or restrict the contents of a data filed
63) In the segment attribute tables what information is provided in the columns labeled RP/#?
This represents whether the field may repeat
64) In ERR segment what does the field ERR-3 represent?
HL7 Error code
65) What does field ERR-11 represent in ERR segment?
Override reason code
66) Which datatype allows for the transmission of a name plus an identifier, identifier type, internationalization information, and the timestamp of some action and has 24 components?
PPN the performing person timestamp
67) Encoding Characters field is a part of which segment?
It is part of segment MSH
68) Patient arrivals at an ER is an example of which event?
This is an unsolicited event
69) Give details on some HL7 events :-
a. swap patients
b. unsolicited transmission of an observation message
c. delete person information
d. query sent for deferred response
70) Is application acknowledgement a HL7 event?
Nope
71) When transfer of information is initiated by the application that does not deal with the triggering event wha tis it called?
Query/response mode
72) Choose the escape sequence that represents escape character?
The escape character is E
73) HL7 operates at which OSI layer?
It operates at the Application level. HL7 is the application layer protocol and operates at seventh layer in HL7
74) What does BTS and FTS represent?
Batch trailer segment is BTS and FTS is field trailer segment
75) In MSH segment what does the field MSH-14 represent?
It represents Continuation Pointer
76) In ERR segment what does the field ERR-10 represent?
It represents Override type
77) In ERR segment what does the field ERR-6 represent?
Application Error parameter
78) In BH segment what does the field BSH-4 represent?
It represents Batch sending facility
79) What is meaning of ERR-1 in error segment ERR?
It represents Error code and location
80) What are the advantages/disadvantages of either using a dedicated , propreitory interface and an interface using HL7?
a) A dedicated, propreitory interface can be targeted and optimized to the environment in which it operates
b) HL7 interfaces are broader in scope and require more effort to define and constrain , but when well-defined are easier to implement, maintain, extend
81) Which escape sequence represents hexadecimal data?
This is represented by the escape sequence Xddd…
82) Scheduling transaction set is defined using what basic type of messages?
Scheduling transaction set is defined using request, query and unsolicited transaction messages.Request transaction, query transaction, unsolicited transaction
83) Which messages are not sent in response to a specific query from user or an application?
Unsolicited updates are not sent in response to a specific query from an user or an application
84) When the transfer of information is initiated by application system that deals with the triggering event, what is the transaction termed as?
Unsolicited update
85) In ERR segment what does the field ERR-4 represent?
Severity
86) Which datatype accommodates short data of 200 characters or less and contains printable characters except for the delimiter characters?
ST the string data type
87) How would you encode a price of $xUSA in HL7 message?
|x^USD|
88) Which is the most commonly used money datatype in HL7?
Using MO
89) Which escape sequence that represents subcomponent separator?
It is using escape sequence T
90) What datatype accommodates a code value, code text and the name of the coding system in which the value is defined?
CE
91) What segment in HL7 is used to represent date/time that the sending system created the message ?
MSH-7 is the field that contains details on date/time at which the sending system created the message. The timezone specified in here if any will be the default timezone
92) Which numeric datatype is used for transmitting test or observation results ,and permits multiple vectors to be delimited by the repetition separator?
The numeric datatype is NA
93) hat datatype is used for transmitting coded values in a single component from HL7 defined tables?
Using ID
94) Which numeric datatype is used for expressing qualified clinical results and ranges for example : |^300^-^400| which would indicate a value in the range of 300 to 400?
It can be represented using datatype NM
95) Which datatype is used to transmit patient identifier and its scope?
CX the extended composite ID with check digit
96) What are the parts of a message?
a) element
b) component
c) field
97) What is a trigger event in HL7?
Trigger event is a real world event that triggers the messages between systems in healthcare
98) Is it possible to plug and play with HL7?
a) No as there is lack of a common data model
b) No as it deals with message specifications only
c) No as there exists a lack of process conformity with vendors. Due to this conformance has to be separately defined as per site negotiations. Also there is lack of negotiations within vendor
99) What is an array in HL7?
Objects grouped together and have a notable relationship among each other are called as arrays
100) Which datatype is used in HL7 for the transmission of basic geographic address data ?
Make use of datatype XAD

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Oracle DBA Interview Questions


1) Is oracle user password encrypted by default?
Oracle user passwords aren’t encrypted by default.This is a security threat.Setting one parameter in the client side and one parameter in the server side we can ensure that Oracle always encrypts a password when it send it across a network.
Client Side : ora_encrypt_login=true
Server Side : dblink_encrypt_login=true
DES – data Encryption Standard will be used for encryption
2) Which oracle database user can make use of datapump utility?
All Oracle users can use the Data Pump utility by default. They can perform basic tasks using datapump utility
3) What is needed for a user to perform advanced datapump tasks in an oracle database?
To perform advanced tasks user needs the special privileges EXP_FULL_DATABASE and IMP_FULL_DATABASE. Granting of the roles mentioned above makes user a privileged user and helps user perform the following tasks:
1) Export and Import database objects owned by any user
2) Attach to and modify jobs started by another user
3) Use the all new remapping capabilities during a Datapump Import job
4) Is oracle database recovery manual or automated while making use of RMAN?
RMAN automates the entire recovery process in an oracle database. It basically involves the usage of the following two commands :
1) RESTORE command– restores entire database, tablespace, single data file, control files, archived redo logs, SPFILE from RMAN backup set or from image copy on disk
2) RECOVER Command – This will perform the actual media recovery by applying necessary archived redo logs or incremental backups
5) When are traditional point-in-time recovery techniques used? What was the disadvantage of this procedure?
Traditional point-in-time recovery techniques are used in case of logical corruption. The process involves restore datafile backup copies and then use archived logs to advance the database forward
This used to be time-consuming and cubersome. As a fix flashback database feature got introduced in latest version of oracle databases
6) What are the steps involved in configuring flashback database?
a) Check if database is in archivelog mode using sql command archive log list
Turn on archivelog mode if it isn’t as follows :
shutdown immediate;
startup mount;
alter database archivelog;
startup open;
Check and make sure archive logging is enabled as follows:
archive log list;
b) As a next step set up a flash recovery area
Set DB_FLASHBACK_RETENTION_TARGET to specify how far back we can flashback our database. The value specified is in minutes
alter system set db_flashback_retention_target = 1440; (1day=1440 minutes)
Shutdown and restart the database in mount mode
shutdown immediate;
startup mount;
Enable flashback database feature while database is in mount mode
alter database flashback on;
Startup open;
c) Check and make sure flashback feature is configured by issuing the following commands
SQL>select flashback_on from v$database;
The output should return YES
7) Give details on dirty-read problem in an Oracle database :-
Dirty-Read Problem occurs when a transaction reads data that has been updated by an ongoing transaction but has not been committed permanently
For example, transaction A has just updated the value of a column and it is now read by transaction B
What if transaction A rollsback the changes, intentionally or because it aborts for some reason? The value of the updated column will also be rolled back as a result
But, transaction B has already read the new value of the column, which is now incorrect because of rolling back of transaction A
8) What privilege is needed to access DB console web application in an oracle database?
DB Console is the free web based application shipped for free since Oracle database 10g. From Oracle 11g onwards database db console web application is shipped for free.
SELECT ANY DICTIONARY Privilege is needed to access DB Console in Oracle Database
9) What is automatic shared memory management? How is this achieved?
Automatic shared memory management is the new feature from oracle database 10g onwards. It is set by setting the parameter MEMORY_TARGET in initialization parameter file. It is possible to disable automatic shared segment management by setting the value of MEMORY_TARGET parameter to zero
SQL> alter system set memory_target=0 scope=memory;
System altered.
Scope has been specified as memory. It can be set to SPFILE, BOTH, MEMORY
10) What does a Flashback Versions Query do in an Oracle database?
Allows us to view all the versions of the same row over a period of time so that we can undo logical errors
It can also provide an audit history of changes, effectively allowing us to compare present data against historical data without performing any DML activity
Restores a table to a point in time or to a specified SCN without restoring data files
This feature uses DML changes to undo the changes in a table
The flashback table feature relies on undo data
11) What are many different types of recovery processes in an oracle database environment?
Oracle Recovery Process comprises of :
1) Crash and Instance Recovery
2) Media Recovery
Oracle automatically performs recovery when a single instance suddenly fails, or when all the instances of a RAC database fails
When an instance is shutdown with SHUTDOWN ABORT command, we need to perform a crash recovery
Instance recovery is same as crash recovery. It is the process in which surviving instances bring back the crashed instances in a RAC environment
Media recovery isn’t automatic. DBA has to initiate the recovery process
RMAN – used to perform block-media recovery
13) When does the error ORA-00903: invalid table name occur? How will you fix it?
Oracle object names are case sensitive. If we try creating a table with name specified in single quotes it throws this error.
SQL> create table ‘singlequote’ (test date);
create table ‘singlequote’ (test date)
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00903: invalid table name
This can be resolved by specifying table name inside double quote
SQL> create table “doublequote” (test date);
Table created.
14) What are the procedures that you need to execute after applying patch in an Oracle environment? Oracle patches are binary files that make changes to Oracle home, including dicitonary views. Hence it is a good practice to always run statistics collection against system objects after patch application. Follow these simple steps as stand alone or anonymous block to gather statistics after patch application
Standalone Steps For executing the statistics collection procedures that can be run one by one
execute DBMS_STATS.GATHER_SYSTEM_STATS;
execute DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DICTIONARY_STATS;
execute DBMS_STATS.GATHER_FIXED_OBJECTS_STATS;
Anonymous Block that can include all the three statistics collection procedure and can be run as script as well:
BEGIN
DBMS_STATS.GATHER_SYSTEM_STATS;
DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DICTIONARY_STATS;
DBMS_STATS.GATHER_FIXED_OBJECTS_STATS;
END;
/
15) What is the use of oradim utility? Is there a Linux equivalent of oradim utility?
oradim utility can be used in windows OS to perform a variety of tasks. There is no oradim equivalent utility for Linux/UNIX enironment
To startup an Oracle Service(instance) issue:
oradim -startup -sid sidname
To shutdown a service issue:
oradim -shutdown -sid sidname
If the following error occurs follow the steps below:
ORA-01017: invalid username/password; logon denied
oradim -shutdown -sid sisdname -syspwd sysuserpassword -shuttype srvc,instance -shutmode abort normal immediate
16) How does an undo tablespace size correspond to flashback database feature if one has been implemented?
Undo tablespace should be able to accommodate all the long-running transactions
It has to be big enough to accommodate flashback features we may implement in the database as oracle’s flashback lets us undo changes to the data at various levels
Some flashback features that utilize undo data are – Flashback query, flashback versions query, flashback table
17) How is sizing of individual undo segments done?
We should decide the size of the undo tablespace and the setting for the UNDO_RETENTION initialization parameter. Oracle will do the sizing of the individual undo segments
18) What is the use of Undo advisor present in OEM?
Undo advisor through OEM can be used to figure out the ideal size of undo tablespace and ideal duration to be specified for UNDO_RETENTION parameter. Using the current undo space consumption statistics, we can estimate future undo generation rates for the instance
19) Can you get details on database version as a normal user without SYSDBA privilege?
Database version is the first thing to determine any issue in case of issue investigation. If the DBA is not allowed to have details on SYS user password they can still get details with their normal user privilege
It is possible to identify the version of the oracle database instance when we are connected as normal user and SYS user with SYSDBA privilege. Here is a simple demonstration. Initially I’ve connected as SYS user with SYSDBA privilege.
SQL> select * from v$version;
20) How do I determine if a tablespace is unavailable (or) Dropped?
There are some core database dictionary objects that show detials on status of a tablespace. One such object is the ts$
create tablespace test datafile ‘d:oracledatabase’ 200M autoextend on;
SQL> select ts#,name,online$ from ts$ where name=’TEST’;
TS# NAME ONLINE$
———- —————————— ———-
14 TEST 1
SQL> drop tablespace test including contents;
Tablespace dropped.
SQL> select ts#,name,online$ from ts$ where name=’TEST’;
TS# NAME ONLINE$
———- —————————— ———-
14 TEST 3
21) What is advantage Of Using Direct-Path Loading Method Over Conventional Data Load?
SQL*Loader performs data loading using two methods:
1) Conventional loading
2) Direct-path loading
Conventional loading method used SQL INSERT statement to insert data into the tables one bind array size at a time.The direct-path loading option doesn’t use the SQL INSERT statement to put data into tables. It formats the Oracle datablocks and writes them directly to the database files.
This direct-write process eliminates much of the overhead involved in executing SQL statements to load tables.So it loads data much faster than the conventional loading method.For large data-loads direct-path loading method is the default loading method because of the speed constraints associated with the conventional loading method
22) What is the user-managed recovery procedure to recover control file in an oracle database?
User-Managed procedures can be followed to recover a control file.If we’ve lost all the control file, we can create a brand new control file using CREATE CONTROLFILE command
We can make use of control file created in trace
SQL>ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO TRACE; – creates a file in udump directory
SQL> STARTUP NOMOUNT
SQL> CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE “dbname” NORESETLOGS ARCHIVELOG
SQL> RECOVER DATABASE;
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG ALL;
SQL> ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
REUSE option asks Oracle to overwrite any of the old control files if they exist in their default location
23) Give details on many different datapump files :-
Data Pump uses the following files for its operation :
Dump Files :
These hold the table data as well as the metadata that’s being loaded or unloaded
Log Files :
These are the standard files for logging the messages and results of Data Pump Operation
SQL Files :
Data Pump Import uses a special parameter called SQLFILE, which will write all the DDL statement it will execute during the job to a file
Data Pump doesn’t actually execute the statements but write the DDL statements to the file specified by the SQLFILE parameter.
All log files, SQLFILE will overwrite any existing file with the same file name
If an older dump file of the same name already exists we’ll get an error
24) How to perform log sequence based incomplete recovery?
In some cases we see gap in archived redo logs (i.e) archived redo logs are available only until a particular log sequence number. In such cases log based recovery comes handy
In SQL Prompt ,
SQL> startup mount pfile=’pfile location’;
In RMAN Prompt
rman target sys/syspassword@oracle_sid
Log onto RMAN prompt and make sure database is in mount mode
restore database until sequence sequencenmber+1 thread thread-number;
This is an incomplete recovery and hence open database in SQL prompt:
alter database open resetlogs;
Note that if we restore and recover upto log sequence number 99 we specify value as 100
25) How to move controlfiles across disks?
Moving Control Files across disks happens when the company’s high availability policy demands the control files to be placed in different disks.Follow the steps to move the control files.
SQL>show parameter control_files; – list showing control file location.
SQL>shutdown immediate; – instance down
SQL> host mv oldfile new-file; move the files
SQL> startup nomount; – Nomount state to modify the initSID.ora/spfileSID.ora file
SQL>alter system set control_files=new-file; rename the parameter in parameter files.
SQL> startup force; – start the instance
SQL> show parameter control_files; – check the new location values
26) Is table automatically analyzed upon index creation?
Database statistics play a crucial role in determining the performance of the database. Oracle database has many inbuilt tool that will let us analyze the database objects. The most important database object used to store information is the table. An index is based on one or more column of a table.
Whenever a table is created it is not ANALYZED. When an index is created it is automatically ANALYZED.
SQL> create table test_anal (c1 date);
Table created.
SQL> select num_rows,last_analyzed from dba_tables where table_name=’TEST_ANAL’;
NUM_ROWS LAST_ANAL
———- ———
Query the dba_tables data dictionary view to make sure that no rows have been analyzed upon table creation.
We’ll insert few rows into the table and see if it is analyzed.
SQL> insert into test_anal select created from dba_users;
36 rows created.
SQL> select num_rows,last_analyzed from dba_tables where table_name=’TEST_ANAL’;
NUM_ROWS LAST_ANAL
———- ———
We see that no rows have been analyzed upon insertion into the table.Now lets look at how an index is created and its rows are automatically analyzed upon creation.
SQL> create index test_anal_index on test_anal(c1);
Index created.
SQL> select distinct_keys,last_analyzed from dba_indexes where index_name=’TEST_ANAL_INDEX’;
DISTINCT_KEYS LAST_ANAL
————- ———
24 26-NOV-18
We see that an index has been created and automatically analyzed upon creation Num_rows
27) How will you resize a tablespace in an Oracle environment?
Tablespace is a logical data structure in Oracle database management system. Tablespace is composed of one or more data files. A datafile can belong to only one tablespace.We can increase or decrease the size of tablespace by increasing or decreasing the size of datafile using RESIZE option
28) What Happens When An Oracle Transaction Is Committed?
The transaction tables in the redo records are tagged with the unique system change number (SCN) of the committed transaction
The log writer writes the redo log information for the transaction from the redo log buffer to the redo log files on the disk, along with the transaction’s SCN.
This is the point at which commit is considered complete in Oracle
Any lock that Oracle holds are released, and Oracle marks the transaction as complete
29) What to do while Access is denied error happens during creating multiple copies of controlfile for multiplexing control files?
Follow the correct set of steps to fix this issue
1) Show parameter control_files
2) shutdown immediate;
3) host copy source destination
4) startup nomount;
So, be careful on steps followed and get it done. The error typically happens when we try to perform the copy of controlfile in nomount mode
30) What is the use of v$flashback_database_log view and how this is associated with DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE initialization parameter?
The important initialization parameter to be initialized while configuring flashback database in oracle database is DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE. After setting the value it is possible to verify it using show parameter command.
Also v$views such as v$flashback_database_log, v$parameter can be used to obtain details about this initialization parameter.
SQL>  select flashback_size from v$flashback_database_log;
FLASHBACK_SIZE
————–
24133632
SQL> show parameter db_recovery_file_dest_size
NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
———————————— ———– ——————————
db_recovery_file_dest_size           big integer 3G
31) What is database troubleshooting?
The primary job role of DBA administering many different flavors of databases, different types of databases say from relational databases like DB2, oracle, sql server, mysql to most recent mongodb, couchdb, cassandra , HBase,nosql databases would be to troubleshoot the issues that arise as part of database systems in place
Database troubleshooting can involve any level of issue fixes that arise in the database environment. This can involve taking a quick look at database connection issues, network issues, fixing corruption to complex tasks involving performance tuning of databases. Here are some common database troubleshooting tasks that a DBA does. You can share this in detail to crack your next DBA interview
1) Connectivity Issues – Now-a-days databases have been migrated from data center to cloud infrastructure. Expect this common interview question. When you find network connectivity issue perform some steps to investigate and fix the issues
Look for database availability – Database must be up and running for proper connectivity. If database is down bring it back. If issue still persists, look at alert.log in trace folder to determine root cause of down situation and take it from there on
Look for listener availability – Listener service should be up and running to allow clients to connect to database. TNS listener error is recorded in alert.log file. If this service is down start listener service
Look for network issue between database and web/application server – Typically applications that are web based work on HTTP request response architectural implementation. When a webpage is requested web server contacts database to pull needed data for rendering back to end user. If the web page is blank, look at network connectivity issue between database and web/application server. This is very common in cloud implementations
Tools Used : In case of oracle tnsping can be used to determine connectivity
lsnrctl status – Used to determine listener status
ping command from database to webserver and vice versa will help us determine network issues
Fiddler Capture – This is a tool that can be run to monitor step by step taken by an application to access, render information
2) System performance issues – Make use of OS utilities like sar, top, cpustat, memstat, top to look for resource consumption at OS level. In case of oracle database awrrpt.sql, addmrpt.sql, asjrpt.sql are the tools that come real handy to diagnose and fix the issues
3) Data Dictionary Views – Oracle comes with pre-defined set of tables and views that are stored in SYS schema. They store metadata information about database, current database operations etc. They come handy to fix database issues
4) Lock issues – Oracle is a DBMS based on ACID principle. Locks are established for data consistency and concurrency. At times they can be problematic causing slowness, inappropriate waits etc. Look and fix lock issues if needed
5) Cursour issues – Cursors form main focal point while investigating performance issues
6) Sizing of temporary and undo tablespaces – TEMP tablespace should be sized appropriately as they are used for sorting operations. UNDO tablespace store before image and sizing of undo tablespace, proper setting of undo_retention parameter helps in fixing many database issues
32) How can you get details of undo tablespaces?
Undo tablespaces created in the oracle database and in use can be queried from the data dictionary view dba_tablespaces. Similar to table segments, undo tablespaces are created and they are formed on undo segments. Here is the query to get list of undo tablespaces created in the database, undo tablespace in use
SQL> select tablespace_name from dba_tablespaces where contents=’UNDO’;
TABLESPACE_NAME
——————————
UNDOTBS1
SQL> select value from v$parameter where name=’undo_tablespace’;
VALUE
—————————————————————————
UNDOTBS1
33) What is the use of undo_tablespace initialization parameter?
UNDO_TABLESPACE is the initialization parameter the defines what is the undo tablespace in use. Hence it is possible to query the v$parameter dynamic performance view to get details on current undo_Tablespcae. Show parameter undo_tablespace is going to fetch the same result
SQL> show parameter undo_tablespace;
NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
———————————— ———– ———–
undo_tablespace                      string      UNDOTBS1
34) What is an oracle instance formed of?
An oracle instance is formed of two major components :
1) Background processes – the set of operating system processes that support the start, running, management of instances
2) Memory structures – the RAM structures that are allocated for many different database operations
35) From where can you get details about an oracle instance?
We can get information about the oracle instance by determining the current size of various memory structures that make up the instance.Clients such as SQL*PLUS, SQL Developer, TOAD etc can be used to obtain this information
1) Connect to database as privileged user SYSTEM
2) System global area, SGA as it is popularly called is a major component of memory structure
36) How to get details about SGA and PGA in an oracle instance?
Determine the current size, minimum size, maximum size of SGA. Components of SGA can be dynamically resized.
SQL> select COMPONENT,CURRENT_SIZE,MIN_SIZE,MAX_SIZE from v$sga_dynamic_components;
3) Next major component is Program Global Area(PGA).
SQL> select name,value from v$pgastat where name in(‘maximum PGA allocated’,’total PGA allocated’);
37) What is the significance of COMMIT_WRITE Initialization Parameter?
Default behavior is to have a disk I/O after each COMMIT. This causes a slight delay in finishing the transaction
We may avoid the delay resulting from frequent writing of redo log records and waiting for the confirmation of those writes by setting the COMMIT_WRITE to BATCH,NOWAIT
This parameter can be set at SYSTEM or SESSION level
COMMIT_WRITE = BATCH,NOWAIT
ALTER SESSION SET COMMIT_WRITE = BATCH,NOWAIT
38) How will you format the sqlplus output?
When we query certain tables, views and such database objects, we get the output in an unformatted fashion. In Oracle it is possible to format the sql output. We can format the column to be displayed. We can set size of columns.
Syntax – column column-name format a(xx); – where xx – can take values like 1,2,3,4…
Here are the set of commands to format the output.
SQL> select component,current_size from v$sga_dynamic_components;
COMPONENT CURRENT_SIZE
—————————————————————- ————
shared pool 327155712
large pool 8388608
java pool 8388608
streams pool 0
DEFAULT buffer cache 452984832
KEEP buffer cache 0
RECYCLE buffer cache 0
DEFAULT 2K buffer cache 0
DEFAULT 4K buffer cache 0
DEFAULT 8K buffer cache 0
DEFAULT 16K buffer cache 0
COMPONENT CURRENT_SIZE
—————————————————————- ————
DEFAULT 32K buffer cache 0
Shared IO Pool 0
ASM Buffer Cache 0
14 rows selected.
We can format the column values and set it accordingly.
SQL> column component format a30;
SQL> column current_size format 9999999999;
SQL> select component,current_size from v$sga_dynamic_components;
COMPONENT CURRENT_SIZE
—————————— ————
shared pool 327155712
large pool 8388608
java pool 8388608
streams pool 0
DEFAULT buffer cache 452984832
KEEP buffer cache 0
RECYCLE buffer cache 0
DEFAULT 2K buffer cache 0
DEFAULT 4K buffer cache 0
DEFAULT 8K buffer cache 0
DEFAULT 16K buffer cache 0
COMPONENT CURRENT_SIZE
—————————— ————
DEFAULT 32K buffer cache 0
Shared IO Pool 0
ASM Buffer Cache 0
14 rows selected.
39) What is the advantage of compressing a backup?
When backup sets are compressed :
1) Number of backup pieces produced will be less
2) Space needed by backupset  gets reuced (by atleast 50% to 75%)
What is the advantage of ZLIB over bzip2?
BZIP2 – Traditional algorithm which uses most of the CPU
ZLIB – CPU usage not a problem while using this algorithm as it uses less CPU time
42) What is the command used for enabling compression in versions prior to Oracle database?
RMAN> CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 1 BACKUP TYPE TO COMPRESSED BACKUPSET;
RMAN> BACKUP AS COMPRESSED BACKUPSET DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;
43) How do you set the compression algorithm to be used in Oracle database?
RMAN> CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM ‘ZLIB’;
RMAN> CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM ‘BZIP2’;
44) What is need to compress data in oracle database and how is this being done?
Storage is always a costly entity. Saving space is very important as it saves cost for an organization. Oracle Corporation has come out with its properitory backup solution RMAN (Recovery Manager). RMAN has a feature to enable backup compression. The way backup is compressed is different in Oracle database 11g than in previous versions
45) You are getting error ORA-00054: resource busy and acquire with NOWAIT specified or timeout expired. How will you fix this issue using oracle initialization parameter?
Oracle database has an interesting initialization parameter DDL_LOCK_TIMEOUT set at session level and system level. Whenever a DDL statement like ALTER is issued against a table a DDL lock is acquired in that object. If we try to perform any operation against that object, it results in an error.
ORA-00054: resource busy and acquire with NOWAIT specified or timeout expired
To avoid such errors, we can set initialization parameters DDL_LOCK_TIMEOUT which performs automatic retries within the time. Value specified is in seconds
We can set DDL_LOCK_TIMEOUT at session level
SQL> alter session set ddl_lock_timeout=60;
Session altered.
It is possible to set the values at the database level.
SQL> alter system set ddl_lock_timeout=50;
System altered
46) ITIL SLA(Service Level Agreement) demands recovery of most systems to be done in minutes. What is the best way to achieve this in an Oracle database environment?
Oracle Database RECOVER a tablespace using RMAN is a easy way of recovering a single tablespace or a list of tablespaces. We can perform recovery in a OPEN database. We don’t have to shutdown the database.If needed we can bring down database to mount mode
1) Bring the tablespace offline. Rest of the database function will not be affected
RMAN> Alter tablespace tablespace_name OFFLINE;
2) Restore the tablespace as follows :
RMAN> RESTORE TABLESPACE tablespace_name;
3) Recover the tablespace
RMAN> RECOVER tablespace tablespace_name;
4) Recovered tablespace can be brought online :
RMAN> Alter tablespace tablespace_name ONLINE;
47) What is an initialization parameter file? What is its significance in an oracle database environment?
Initialization parameter file is the file holding initialization parameters. Initialization parameters are also called as instance configuration parameters. Initialization parameter files are system location specific. Depends on OS:
LINUX/UNIX – $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
WINDOWS – $ORACLE_HOME%database
There are two types of initialization parameter file – SPFILE and text initialization parameter file(init.ora)
Oracle Database locates the initialization parameter file by examining the filenames in the following order:
1) SPFILE$ORACLE_SID.ora
2) spfile.ora
3) init$ORACLE_SID.ora (text initialization parameter file
48) Give details on oracle client in an oracle environment :-
Install oracle client software at client machines.Download client software from oracle website.
Versions of oracle server and oracle client need not be compatible.Oracle recommends the usage of compatible server and client versions
49) Can you create a database tablename with spaces in them? Is it possible to perform DML operations against this table?
It is possible to create a table the essentially important basic database object name with spaces in them. Specify them inside double quotes
SQL>  create table “with space sample”(“-Hyphen” date);
Table created.
SQL> insert into “with space sample” values(sysdate);
1 row created.
SQL> select * from with space sample;
select * from with space sample
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00903: invalid table name
SQL> select * from “with space sample”;
-Hyphen
This produced the correct result if specified within double quotes. It is also interesting to know that DML (Data Manipulation language) operations such as INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE can be performed against these objects. Names must be specified within double quotes.
———
30-DEC-18
50) What is a database resource manager?
Database resource manager allows us to create resource plans,which specify how much of our resources should go to various consumer groups.We can group users based on their resource requirement and we can have the database resource manager allocate a preset amount of resources to these groups.We can easily prioritize our users and jobs.
51) What are the uses of a database resource manager?
1) The database resource manager enables us to limit the length of time a user session can stay idle and to automatically terminate long-running SQL statements and user sessions.
2) Using the database resource manager we can set initial login priorities for various consumer groups
3) By using the concept of active session pool,we can specify the maximum number of concurrent active sessions for a consumer group-the Database resource manager will automatically queue all the subsequent requests until the currently running sessions complete.
Can we switch users between resource consumer groups/consumer groups?
DBA’s can automatically switch users from one resource group to another ,based on preset resource usage criteria,and can limit the amount of undo space a resource group can use.
52) What are the four elements of a Database resource Manager?
Database resource manager is composed of the following four elements : Resource consumer group, resource plan,resource allocation method,resource plan directive.
53) What is a resource consumer group?
A resource consumer group is used to group together similar users based on their resource needs.
54) What is a resource plan?
The resource plan lays o how resource consumer groups are allocated resources. Each resource plan contains a set of resource consumer groups that belong to this plan, together with instructions as to how resources are to be allocated among these groups.
For instance,a resource plan may dictate CPU resources be allocated among three resource consumer groups so that the first group gets 60 percent and the remaining two groups get 20 percent each of the total CPU time.
55) What is a subplan?
A subplan is a part of the resource plan that enables the allocation of resources in greater detailamong the resource consumer groups.
56) What is a resource allocation method?
The resource allocation method dictates the specific method we choose to use to allocate resources like the CPU.The available methods of allocating the database resources are CPU method, Idle time, Execution time limit,Undo pool,Active session pool,automatic consumer group switching,cancelling SQL and terminating sessions,parallel degree limit.
57) What is a CPU method?
Oracle uses multiple levels of CPU allocation to prioritize and allocate CPU usage among the competing user sessions.It is a type of resource allocation method.
58) What is an idle time?
It is a type of resource allocation method.We can direct that a user’s session be terminated after it has been idle for a specified period of time.We can also specify that only idle sessions blocking other sessions be terminated.
59) What is an execution time limit?
It is a type of resource allocation method.We can control resource usage by setting a limit on the maximum execution time of an operation.
60) What is an undo pool?
It is a type of resource allocation method.By setting an undo pool directive,we can limit the total amount of undos that can be generated by a consumer resource group.
61) From which v$ view can you get details on SCN in an oracle database?
Oracle database has many different dynamic performance views.One interesting view is the v$database which provides information on SCN (System Change Number).Whenever a change is made to the database, the change in recorded in redo log buffer in memory. Upon a commit the information is written to online redo log files. This process usually called the database checkpoint.
When the information is written a unique number called SCN (system change number) is associated with this in online redo log file. Information can be obtained from v$database view as follows
SQL> select current_scn from v$database;

CURRENT_SCN
———–
436843703
Now issue a DDL statement. DDL’s have implicit commit
SQL> alter table new modify id varchar(1000);

Table altered.

SQL> select current_scn from v$database;

CURRENT_SCN
———–
436843728
62) Do we need to set oracle_home before using oracle vault?
YEs. This is mandate. Oracle Database Vault is the security solution from Oracle Corporation. It is necessary to set the value of ORACLE_HOME before enabling oracle database vault
C:Usersusername>dvca -action enable
ORACLE_HOME not set. Set ORACLE_HOME and retry
C:Usersusername>set ORACLE_HOME=location-name
C:Usersusername>dvca -action enable
63) What is ASM?
ASM is the Automated storage manager. Originally file system management was taken care of at OS level. Oracle has come up with Oracle Automatic Storage Manager that makes storage management possible using Oracle ASM instance
64) What are the type of partitions?
Partitions can be broadly classified into three major categories
1) List partition
2) Range patition
3) Hash partition
65) What is Grid Computing?
Management of the organization’s infrastructure from a single console is called as grid computing. Oracle uses Oracle Enterprise Manager for Grid computing.
66) Purpose of OEM Grid Control:
The purpose of the OEM Grid Control is to facilitate the management of entire systems, including hosts, databases, web servers, listeners and other services.
It provides us with a powerful and convenient centralized means of managing our entire infrastructure, not just our oracle databases.We can manage our systems from just about anywhere including from mobile devices
67) How to address ORA-02270: no matching unique or primary key for this column-list?
I created two tables and tried creating a foreign key constraint. I didn’t specify any key as primary key in parent table. I modified a column as primary key in parent table and created a foreign key with this primary key.This fixed the issue.
SQL> create table dept(manager_id int, manager varchar(20));
Table created.
SQL> create table employee(emp_id int, employee_name varchar2(20), salary int);
Table created.
SQL> alter table dept add constraint mgr_fk foreign key(manager_id) references employee(emp_id);
alter table dept add constraint mgr_fk foreign key(manager_id) references employee(emp_id)
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02270: no matching unique or primary key for this column-list
SQL> alter table employee modify emp_id primary key;
Table altered.
SQL> alter table dept add constraint mgr_fk foreign key(manager_id) references employee(emp_id);
Table altered.
68) How to Monitor Flashback Database?
Flashback database in oracle database 11g can be configured using steps mentioned in previous post. It is noted that flashback database can be in YES|NO status.

We can make use of v$database view to get more details on flashback database
SQL>  select flashback_on from v$database;
FLASHBACK_ON
——————
YES

69) How do you maintain more than one copy of archived redo logs?
This can be done in many different ways:
1) Setup jobs to copy the archived redo logs at scheduled intervals
2) Manually copy the logs
3) Setup dataguard the oracle product that does log transport
These logs can be copied onto different disk drive within same server or different server
70) How will you change Flash Recovery Area Size Dynamically?
Flashrecovery area needs to be configured if we want to backup database using RMAN(Oracle Recovery Manager) backup/restore utility of oracle database. It is possible to change the flash recovery area size dynamically.
SQL> show parameter db_recovery_file_dest_size;
NAME TYPE VALUE
———————————— ———– ——————————
db_recovery_file_dest_size big integer 2G
SQL> alter system set db_recovery_file_dest_size = 3G;
System altered.
SQL> show parameter db_recovery_file_dest_size;
NAME TYPE VALUE
———————————— ———– ——————————
db_recovery_file_dest_size big integer 3G
71) What is the use of SQL.BSQ Script?
SQL.BSQ Script is run to create base tables,roles at the database creation time.sql.bsq creates the following roles – connect,resource,dba,select_catalog_role,delete_catalog_role,execute_catalog_role
Role is the grouping of privileges that can be granted to users.As privileges are grouped they can be granted and revoked simultaneously.
72) What is the procedure to recover Lost SYSDBA Password in Oracle Database?
There are instances when the dba loses their sysdba passwords.
1) Identify the location of the password file.
2) Make a copy of the password file
3) Remove the password file
4) Use the orapwd utility from the OS prompt and create a new password file as follows :
orapwd file=(newpassword file) password=newsysdba password entries=no of entries
5) Try logging in with new password.
73) How to address DBMS_LOB Usage Oracle Error?
When we use dbms_lob package to manipulate objects like images,video,pictures we follow the steps:
1) create a directory
2) create a anonymous pl/sql procedure or prcedure to manupulate images
We encounter a common oracle error when we execute dbms_lob
File can’t be opened/file is not existing in locationpecified.
Solution:
grant read on directory directory_name to user;
grant write on directory directory_name to user;
This resolves the issue.
74) When a tablespace is in readonly mode can you create table in that tablespace?
I made the tablespace read only and tried creating table. It did throw error.I changed it back to read write and it worked fine without any issues.
SQL> alter tablespace user read only;
Tablespace altered.
SQL> alter tablespace users read write;
Tablespace altered.
SQL> create table news(name varchar2(100) ) tablespace users;
Table created.
75) Give details on Oracle Datapump Export Modes :-
Datapump in oracle is an interesting technology that has replaced traditional exp/imp starting 10.1. In latest versions Oracle Datapump features have been enhanced. Using oracle datapump we can unload the database information traditionally called database export in one of the following modes
1) Full mode
2) Tables mode
3) Schemas mode
4) Tablespaces mode
5) Transportable tablespaces mode
76) Your manager wants to make sure if the performance of the database is same before and after upgrade. What is the proactive measure you will need to take towards this?
The best and easy way is to make use of AWR compare-period reports. As a first step capture periodic baselines before the upgrade, that can be used after upgrade for comparison purpose. This baseline can be year-end, month-end, quarter-end periods depending on requirement
77) What is the minimum SYSTEM, SYSAUX,UNDOTBS1, TEMP tablespace size required for upgrading to Oracle 12c?
SYSTEM tablespace should be 1262MB (1.3GB) in size, SYSAUX needs to be 1476MB (1.4GB) minimum in size , UNDOTBS1 needs to be 400 MB in size, TEMP tablespace needs to be 60MB minimum in size for successful 12c upgrade
78) What is the disadvantage of using database upgrade assistant DBUA for upgrading your database?
The DBUA tool is the graphic tool used for upgrade purpose. Inspite of GUI convenience there are some disadvantages of using this tool as follows :
a) As this is an automated tool the control over upgrade process is limited
b) This tool can’t be used to perform OS (or) hardware migration
c) This tool needs to meet a specific release level
79) What are the disadvantages of manual upgrade?
This is error prone owing to manual intervention of DBA and involves more work. Errors needs to be checked manually. Again this upgrade needs proper release level check before upgrade. Upgrade does not automatically takes care of hardware (or) OD migration

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Oracle cloud interview Questions


Oracle cloud interview Questions will help you prepare and clear upcoming interview questions with oracle cloud
1) There are many different cloud services. Why should I choose oracle cloud over others?
Oracle database is the popular relational database company that has been in existence so long. Oracle cloud offers database as a service. With oracle databases supporting enterprise databases, this is a cloud service that can support databases that are used for testing, development, all the way upto live production databases. Oracle cloud offers high availability, scalability options offering business continuity, time save and lot more advantages. A cloud service from a database company to keep it simple
2) You are opting for standard package. Do you need to pay extra for TDE?
No. All packages including standard package, enterprise package, high performance package, extreme performance package include Oracle Database Transparent Data Encryption
3) Can you implement RAC in oracle cloud?
Yes. Enterprise edition extreme performance RAC under bring your own license BYOL model does offer this provision. Pricing can be referred at oracle cloud official website
4) What is included in standard package?
Under standard package both in Universal credit services as well as bring your own license BYOL model oracle database standard edition 2 is included. In case you have opted to make use of BYOL model standard package this can be standard edition one, or oracle database standard edition 2
5) You have chosen to make a purchase under universal credit services standard package. What cost do you need to pay upfront?
As this a pay as you go service in case of universal credit services you dont need to pay any upfront costs. Based on usage monthly invoice will be generated. This is same as in AWS cloud
6) You have chosen to BYOL standard package. What is upfront cost?
This is a pay as you go service and no monthly upfront cost needed. Only service usage is metered and charged accordingly
7) In oracle cloud platform as service offering what database management services are included?
Following database management services are included as part of Oracle cloud platform as a service PaaS :
Database
Database backup
Big Data
Big Data Cloud
Event Hub
MySQL
Autonomous NoSQL Database Cloud
Data hub
Autonomous Data Warehouse Cloud
8) What are the many different database deployment model available with oracle cloud?
Following are the many different types of database deployment models that come as part of oracle cloud:
Oracle database cloud service
Oracle database cloud service bare metal
Oracle Database Exadata Cloud Service
Oracle Database Exadata Cloud at Customer
Oracle Database Exadata Express Cloud Service – Managed
Oracle Database Schema Cloud Service – Managed
9) Can I try oracle cloud for free?
Yes. Oracle cloud offers $300 in free credits. You can make use of this credit for building your test, development, production databases, compute options, containers, IoT, bigdata, API, chatbots, integrations and lots more that are valid for 30 days
Create a free account and try these features for free
10) Where can you store your oracle database backup in oracle cloud?
Oracle cloud object storage solution that is reliable and scalable. As of information from oracle website this is a 8000TB storage that is used for storing and accessing the data in databases that are ever growing. This is storage used for storing oracle database backup data
11) What are the unique features of oracle cloud database backup management offering?
This is a reliable and scalable object data storage from oracle cloud. Some salient features includes:
Security – This solution comes with enterprise-grade data protection policies. The privacy policies are in enterprise grade as well. Oracle being the most popular enterprise database solution this cloud offerings from oracle are designed with this in mind
Reliability – Redundancy policies ensure high availability of data
Scalability – Oracle cloud is a pay as you go model solution wherein you can choose to purchase universal credits, BYOL etc. Based on capacity and growing demands storage hardware is allocated making this a scalable solution
Simplification by using existing RMAN for backups – Even with cloud oracle is still making use of RMAN backup for performing the database backups. This makes backup, restore and recovery operations transparent using RMAN
12) Is my backup safe and secure while being stored in oracle cloud? Explain?
Yes. Oracle database backup service offering encrypts backups at the source, this backup is securely transferred to the cloud and stored in cloud
13) What is the difference between normal database and Oracle database cloud service?
Oracle database cloud service is same as single-instance oracle database except for that database is deployed in cloud and computing resources including storage, power etc is provided by Oracle
14) In Oracle cloud is database maintenance and management to be done only using cloud tools?
Nope. Normal database tools can be made use of for maintenance and management purposes. However, oracle cloud tools can be optionally used
15) What are the two service levels available with oracle database cloud service?
Oracle Database Cloud Service Virtual image wherein customer is responsible for installing software, maintenance of software. Customer has root privilege and full database administrative privilege
Oracle Database Cloud Service wherein database deployment is easy using custom options provided online. Oracle database cloud service can perform automated backups. Customer is responsible for setting up maintenance operations, recovery operation setup in the event of failure
16) Which component of Oracle cloud provides service console and REST API?
Platform Service Manager the PSM component of Oracle cloud is responsible for this. This component is the one used in Oracle golden gate and Oracle Java cloud service as well
17) How does PSM interact with compute nodes to perform predefined cloud service actions like backup, patching?
PSM uses secure shell the SSH in port 22 of compute nodes. Compute nodes hosts databases which as database deployments in oracle cloud terms. These cations can be initiated over web service console that uses PSM or REST API
18) How is internal communication between PSM and Oracle cloud compute nodes established?
SSH key-value pairs are used for this communication in port 22. This key value pair is specific to each and every database deployment and used for internal communication purposes. This SSH is internal to Oracle and not accessible. If there is an issue here PSM communication with compute node fails
19) Can PSM communication with compute nodes be audited?
Though PSM is an oracle component the actions of PSM during its communication with compute node can be logged and audited
20) Who has access to the SSH keys used for PSM communication with compute nodes?
Only owner of that project has this access. For security purposes even oracle support and operations is not granted this access unless explicitly shared by customers for troubleshooting purposes
21) What are the database related public cloud offerings in oracle cloud?
Oracle public cloud offering comes with the following three database related services in the public cloud. They are as folows :
a) Schema as a service
b) Database as a service – Popularly called DBaaS this public cloud is offered as both Infrastructure as a service IaaS and Plarform as a Service PaaS
c) Oracle database cloud exadata service
22) What does provisioning an oracle database mean?
Provisioning an oracle database means creating an oracle database and making it available to the end users
23) How will you provision an oracle database?
As an oracle dba (or) cloud dba we need to collect requirements from customers (or) project owners and create it as per specific requirements. In case your project needs a clone of production database immediately for testing (or) UAT purpose say for example this can be done as per standard specification requirements often based on a template
24) Give details on some oracle cloud terminologies :-
Service levels
Virtual image
OCPU
Cloud storage
Subscription
Region
Compute
Console
Shape
25) In oracle cloud infrastructure what is the default encryption used in file storage service?
AES-128 encryption algorithm is being used as default encryption in an oracle cloud infrastructure
26) In Oracle cloud infrastructure which among the following are encrypted at rest rather than in transit?
Data as well as Metadata
27) Is UpdateZoneRecord a valid REST API operation?
Yes. It is a valid REST API operation
28) Is AddZone a valid REST API operation?
Yes. It is a valid REST API operation
29) Give some invalid REST API operations for DNS Zone in OCI :-
a) ListZones
b) GetZone
c) CreateZone
d) UpdateZone
e) DeleteZone
30) Where are IAM resources the users and groups created?
They are created globally
31) You want to point a hostname to an IPv4 address. Which DNS resource record type will you make use of to accomplish this?
A record in DNS can be used for this purpose
32) In TCP level healthcheck you attempt to make a TCP connection with the backend servers . How will you validate the response?
Based on the connection status
33) What is extension of Terraform HCL configuration files?
These files come with extension .tf
34) What configuration formats are supported by terraform?
Hashicorp Configuration Language Format HCL,JSON. Oracle cloud infrastructure can be described using HCL in Terraform configuraiton files
35) How will you achieve high availability in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure?
Attach block volume from availability domain 1 to a compute instance in availability domain 2 or viceversa. Distribute application servers across all availability domains within a region
36) What are the different types of compute instances that come as part of Oracle Cloud infrastructure?
Bare Metal, Virtual Machine
37) What are the components of backend set of a load balancer?
a) Load balancing policy
b) list of backend servers
c) health check policy
d) SSL handling
e) session persistence configuration
38) What are the resource record types supported by Oracle Cloud Infrastructure DNS service?
a) ALIAS
b) CNAME
c) DNAME
d) MX
e) NS
39) To tell Terraform what data is important outputs are the way to go. When is this data outputted?
When apply is called
40) When a supply, variables, build are called is the data output created in Terraform?
No
41) What is the default output at the end of a terraform apply operation?
Statistics including what was added, changed, destroyed, values of output becomes available
42) Which two relevant storage tiers are available in the object storage service?
Standard storage,Enhanced Performance storage
43) Does boot volumes allow you to create significantly faster custom images of running VMs without having to reboot?
Yes they do
44) Are the backend set components in load balancer physical (or) logical?
The load balancer components in an oracle cloud infrastructure are logical in nature
45) In Oracle Cloud infrastructure what is default behavior of security list?
It uses stateful rules by default
46) What are the many different formats of terraform configuration files?
Terraform domain-specific language format HCL, Machine-readable JSON format files
47) How will you parameterize Terraform configurations ?
Using input variables
48) You want to launch an instance in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. What are all the required parameters?
Subnet, Availability domain, Virtual cloud network, instance shape, image OS
49) Which resource is tied to availability zone on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure?
Subnet
50) What is extension of JSON format machine-readable Terraform configuration files?
These files are of format .tf.json
51) What are valid REST API operations for DNS Zone in OCI?
a) ListZones
b) GetZone
c) CreateZone
d) UpdateZone
e) DeleteZone
52) What actions are controlled by Oracle cloud infrastructure layer?
a) creating file systems
c) listing file systems
d) associating file systems
e) mount targets
53) How many subnets are needed to create public load balancer?
Two subnets are needed, each in different availability domain within a single region
54) In an Autonomous transaction processing what SQL operations are not available?
Alter profile
55) In an Autonomous transaction processing what SQL operations are available?
a) alter pluggable database with datafile autoextend on
b) Create Tablespace
c) Drop Tablespace
d) Create Index
56) In Oracle cloud infrastructure what is the default location in which automatic backups of databases in cloud are created?
Local Storage
57) What is the main use of load balancing policy in an oracle cloud infrastructure?
It tells the load balancer how to distribute incoming traffic to the backend servers
58) What is the way to tell Terraform what data is important?
Using outputs
56) Can you tell terraform the important data using extracts?
No. For this purpose outputs are used
57) In TCP level healthcheck you send requests to the backend servers at a specific URL. How will you validate the response?
a) based on status code
b) based on entity data returned
c) based on entity body returned
57) State the difference between VM standard and VM dense IO shapes?
The type of storage is NVMe drivers in VM Dense IO and block storage in VM standard
58) What load balancer components are optional backend set components?
SSL handling
session persistence configuration
59) What load balancer components that are mandatory backend set components?
a) Load balancing policy
b) list of backend servers
c) health check policy
d) TCP handling
60) In Oracle cloud infrastructure is IP Networking layer of the security control controlling the actions for connecting the client instance to the mount target?
Yes
61) You are in process of designing a load balancer to accept incoming traffic. What configurations must be made for this?
a) listener must be configured
b) a certificate must be available
c) a security list that is open on a listener port must be available
62) What is the use of internet gateway IG in Oracle Cloud infrastructure?
It provides a path for network traffic between VCN and public internet
63) What actions are controlled by Oracle cloud infrastructure layer?
a) creating file systems
b) listing file systems
c) associating file systems
64) In an Autonomous transaction processing which among the following SQL operations are available?
a) alter pluggable database with datafile autoetend on
b) Create Tablespace
c) Drop Tablespace
d) Create Index
65) What are the many different types of load balancing policy in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure environment?
a) Round Robin
b) Least Connections
c) IP Hash
66) Is route hash a load balancing policy in an oracle cloud infrastructure environment?
Nope
67) In Oracle cloud infrastructure is unix authentication layer of security controlling the actions for connecting the client instance to the mount target?
Nope. IP Networking layer of the security control takes care of connecting clients to mounting targets

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EMC Interview Questions For Storage


1) Network FailSafe device is controlled by which switch protocol?
None
2) Which NetWorker feature enables multiple storage nodes to use the same device?
Dynamic drive sharing
3) What value has the address space been increased to with the introduction of IPv6?
128 bits
4) What is a role of a NetWorker storage node?
Manages backup devices
5) Which protocol is used by open systems hosts to access storage in Fiber Channel SANs?
SCSI
6) A read cache miss operation on a Symmetrix has several steps. The first step is that the host
sends a read request. What is the next step?
The Channel Director checks the track table.
7) What are two CLARiioN High Availability features?
Dual LCCs, Dual storage processor
8) What do VLANs reduce?
The number of packets processed by clients
9) What does EtherChannel link aggregation do?
Disables links of a different speed to the majority of links in the trunk
10) What is used by NetWorker to manage its configuration?
Resource directory
11) In Asynchronous transmissions how are characters transmitted?
Single characters are transmitted at a time
12) What is UDP?
Connectionless base protocol
13) What is VDMs?
VDMs are isolated CIFS servers with their own environments
14) What generates the Content Address for a Centera?
Hashing algorithm
15) Which level of backup is performed during a NetWorker consolidated backup?
1
16) In a NetWorker browsable recovery, what is true about the destination client?
Must also be the administering client
17) In a NetWorker recovery, which client role performs the recovery?
Administering
18) What is Celerra Replicator?
Is an asynchronous data replication solution
19) What is the default subnet mask for an IPv4 Class B address?
255.255.0.0
20) Which event occurs in a NetWorker server-initiated backup but NOT in a client-initiated
backup?
Data life-cycle policies are enforced
21) How many octets in a default Class C IPv4 address make up the network portion?
3
22) Which NetWorker resource is used to determine the backup level for a client?
Schedule
23) What is a characteristic of Centera?
Guaranteed content authenticity
24) What load balancing policies are available in PowerPath?
No Redirect, Round robin
25) Which of the following Symmetrix connectivity options can you use with Open Systems and Windows Hosts?
Fibre Channel and SCSI
26) Which of the following allows you to use ControlCenter Automated Resource Manager Storage Provisioning Services?
Storage pools and storage policies
27) In Celerra TimeFinder/FS Far Copy how does replication happen?
Source and Target are asynchronously replicated
28) In a Centera, what is a supported replication topology?
Star
29) How many optical network ports are available on a NS500 DataMover?
None
30) What does the OSI Physical layer provide?
The media specification
31) What is a function of the API for Centera?
Separates the BLOB from the metadata
32) What is true about FTP and TFTP ?
FTP uses port 21 and TFTP uses port 69
33) When is Celerra SRDF used?
Is implemented over a campus distance
34) How is free maintained in the CLARIION write cache?
Cache is flushed to the driver during I/O only the least -recently used page are flushed
35) Which symmetric presents devices to hosts?
Channel Director
36) What dose the control Center storage agent monitor?
CLARIION
37) When is the Port Bypass Card used on a Symmetrix DMX?
When the Disk Director fails
38) Which of the Celerra data replication options provides a point-in-time filesystem copy over IP?
Celerra Replicator
39) What does ISL aggregation do?
Enables distribution of traffic over the combined bandwidth of two or more ISLs and increases
availability
40) What are features of Celerra Replicator?
Synchronous data recovery, Point-in-time copy over an IP network
41) Which protocol does open systems hosts use to access storage in Fibre Channel SANs?
SCSI
42) Which NetWorker host performs the backup of the bootstrap save set?
Server during a server-initiated backup
43) Which product is used to create Logical Volumes on a Symmetrx system?
Control Center Symmetrix Manager
44) Which Symmetrix connectivity options can be used with mainframe hosts?
ESCON and FICON
45) Which control center view provides a single graphical view of the whole environment, including
consolldated alters and threshold charts?
At A Glance
46) Which set component is requires for write caching to be enable in a CLARIION array?
2 power supplies, 2 storage processors,2 LCC cards and at least one standby power supply
47) What is a benefit of using zoning in a SAN?
Security at the switch port level
48) What is a characteristic of enterprise directors?
Fully redundant components
49) Which java based interface manages standalone MDS-Series switches?
Fabric manger
50) Which protocol is used by open system hosts to access block level storage over IP?
ISCSI
51) What is a characteristic of a Content Address in Centera?
Globally unique
52) What is use of Internet Control Message Protocol ICMP?
Sends administrative information between network devices
53) What is the purpose of storage groups in a CLARiiON storage array?
LUN masking

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EMC interview questions for technical support


1) What statement best describes TimeFinder/Mirror Clone?
Uses copy on access
2) Which of the views in ControlCenter Console displays Front EndDirectors, Disk Directors, and all the devices for a Symmetrix array?
Visual Storage
3) Which is a feature of TimeFinder/Snap related to data accessibility after snap session is initiated?
Data is accessible on the Snap copy immediately after the Snap session is initiated
4) What is the difference between theNSXXXG and the NSXXX?
NSXXXG allows the sharing of back-end storage with other hosts
5) Which views in the ControlCenter Console can be used to monitor the environment?
Relationship, Topology
6) Which is monitored by the ControlCenter Host agent?
Windows 2000 disk
7) What is a benefit of SRDF/Automated Replication solution?
The SRDF/Automated Replication solution provides a copy of the data on the Target device, which will be several minutes to hours behind the Source
8) What is correct sequence for starting a ControlCenter component?
Repository, Server, Store
9) What is the purpose of a TimeFinder/Mirror reverse split operation?
The BCV will synchronize from its mirror
10) After a client has presented information to be stored on Centera, what is the next step?
Unique Content Address is calculated
11) What is the purpose of Dynamic Mirror Service Policy for Symmetrix?
It uses both M1 and M2 mirrors to fulfill read requests as quickly as possible.
12) Is routing same on all operating systems?
No. Routing is not the same on all operating systems
13) Is routing same on all UNIX OS?
No. Routing is not the same on UNIX operating systems
14) Will all switches route multicast traffic by default ?
No. Not all switches will route multicast traffic by default.
15) What command will you make use of to get details on routing table in windows or Linux systems?
To observe the routing table on a UNIX/Linux or Windows server, you should use the netstate – nr command
16) What information is displayed on the Availability Tracking screen?
The amount of planned downtime of a managed resource.
17) What causes the data source to report an unknown state?
The agent failed or shut down
18) How should you determine which ports to use for the AAM installation?
Use the ft_setup script to view available ports during installation
19) What tasks can occur on a secondary agent?
Restart the backbone, Maintain a copy of the database
20) A system administrator is monitoring the AAM domain and notices that a Resource Group is in the unknown state. What does this state indicate?
The agent on the node hosting the Resource group is in the failed state.
21) What is a key requirement of Content Addressed Storage?
Longevity
22) What failover and failback does Celerra SRDF/A support?
Supports a manual failover and failback process
23) What are Virtual DataMovers also called as VDMs ?
They are dedicated CIFS servers
24) In a Centera, what is the minimum node configuration of Generation 4 Hardware?
4
25) Which statement about WINS is correct?
Resolves UNC names to IP address
26) With an IP network address of 132.15.0.0 and a subnet mask of 255.255.240.0 without
enabling 1 bit subnetting, what would be the broadcast address on the first subnet?
132.15.31.255
27) With a subnet mask of 255.255.240.0, how many subnets are possible without enabling 1
bit subnetting?
14
28) Which statement about NetBIOS is correct?
It is a non-routable protocol, without encapsulation into another protocol
29) What is an operation of the OSI Transport layer?
Provides a reliable message stream to the user interface
30) Which statement about Network backup is correct?
The tape device is directly attached to the backup server
31) Which port is the default port used by HTTP Web Browsers?
80
32) What is a function of NetWorker?
Protect critical business data
33) Which statement about Layer 3 devices is correct?
Connect two different logical networks together
34) Which Centera GUI tool is used to configure site specific information?
Centera Viewer
35) In Network backup are permissions on NFS and CIFS files simultaneously preserved?
NFS and CIFS permissions on the same file system are not simultaneously preserved
36) What is a NetWorker remote device?
A device managed by a storage node other than the NetWorker server
37) What are features of a NetWorker storage node?
Manages devices, generates tracking data, and supports multiplexing
38) In a Centera, what is an Access Profile?
Used by applications to authenticate to a Cluster
39) What is a characteristic of Centera?
Single instance storage
40) What is the Address Resolution Protocol responsible for resolving in Direct Routing?
The MAC address of a known IP address
41) Which statement about Synchronous transmissions is correct?
Multiple characters are transmitted at a time
42) What is the Address Resolution Protocol responsible for resolving in Indirect Routing?
The MAC address of the Default gateway
43) What is a function of NetWorker?
Centralize and automate backup and recovery
44) With IP version four IPv4 addresses, how many octets make up the address?
4
45) With IPv6, what is the size of the address space?
128 bits
46) What is the maximum number of DataMovers supported in the NS5XX range of equipment?
2
47) For what purpose are Class D IPv4 addresses used?
Multicast
48) Which event occurs in a NetWorker server-initiated backup but NOT in a client-initiated
backup?
Bootstrap save is created
49) Which of the following protocols is used to share the filesystem to clients in the
Windows environment?
CIFS
50) What is the purpose of the TimeFinder/SRDF QoS Task Bar in ControlCenter?
Performance Management
51) Which of the following is the last step of retrieving an object in the Centera environment?
Centera delivers object authentically
52) How many octets in a default Class B IPv4 address make up the network portion?
2
53) What is the maximum number of Blades supported in the NSX range of equipment?
8
54) How many optical network ports are available on a NSX Blade?
2
55) What does SNMP normally use?
The non-guaranteed services of UDP

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Netbackup Interview Question Answer


1) A database administrator requires that a custom script be executed prior to the
backup of the database. This custom script requires approximately 20 minutes to
execute. Which two configuration options must be modified to allow this operation in a veritas netbackup environment?
DB_EXECUTE_TIMEOUT in vm.conf, BUSY_FILE _PROCESSING in bp.conf
2) Which NetBackup process is responsible for volume recognition on a media server?
vmd
3) What options can be used to expire physical media in a veritas netbackup environment?
date, change of the backup retention level
4) Which command can unfreeze a tape with the media 10 of ABC123 in netbackup?
bpmedia -unfreeze -m ABC123
5) What is required for a SSO to work in netbackup environment?
A SAN is required for SSO to work
6) Which netbackup commands can be used to check and update the volume configuration?
vmchange, vmupdate
7) A new policy has been created with Full and Incremental schedules. The volume
pool has been configured and named Pool A. The Incremental schedule is using the
tapes out of the Full volume pool, not the DailyVolume pool. What can be done to have the Incremental schedule use the PoolA volume pool?
Policy> Schedules> Incremental> Attributes> Override policy volume pool> PoolA
8) Which veritas netbackup command can be used to bring a down drive to an UP state?
vmoprcmd
9) Which factors can determine the number of data streams that can run concurrently?
Multiplexing setting, MAX STREAMS setting, maximum jobs per client setting
10) Which methods automate notification about the status of all backups in veritas netbackup environment?
Modify backup_exit_notlfy.cmd for e-mail notification, Set the e-mail address in host properties
11) What is the appropriate sequence of steps needed to properly implement the VxVM Snapshot Method?
Here are the sequence of steps needed to implement VxVM snapshot :
11.1) Invoke VxVM to establish snap mirror prior to backup
11.2) Perform the backup from the snapshot volume
11.3) After the backup has been completed, invoke VxVM to re-synchronize the snap mirror
12) What is the use of commands vmcheck, bpupdate, vmcheckxxx ?
vmcheck is used to check backup created, bpupdate is used to is used to update the timing and such properties of backup, vmcheckxxx is used to check a backup piece based on timestamp
13) To restore data that was backed up to a NearStore VTL and then off to tape do you need to restore from tape to the NearStore VTL before restoring the data to the server?
No need
14) Give details about OSSV :-
Whilst each OSSV transfer is incremental, each view on the secondary (i.e snapshot) is seen as
a full backup. You can manage OSSV with CLI the command line interface tools, or through DataFabric Manager, or via third party tools such as Syncsort/Bakbone/CommVault
15) What is the largest unit that you can backup with SnapVault?
Volume
16) A customer with OSSV has used the SnapVault/snapMirror bundle to convert their OSSV
destination to R/W for testing. The testing was a success and they would like to copy their
changes back to the OSSV primary. How can this be done?
This is not a possible scenario
17) A customer wants to use SnapVault to backup snapshots from a traditional volume. Which one of the following will impact SnapVault performance?
Frequency of SnapVault transfers
18) Customer wants to do a nightly backup that is locked down for compliance purposes. Which
product will you use?
LockVault
19) A customer has backed up a SnapVault volume on a SnapVault secondary to tape. The steps to recover data from tape to the SnapVault primary will be:
1) Tape->secondary volume->primary volume
2) Tape->primary volume
20) A customer has an Oracle Database with a RTO of 1 hour, but a RPO of 5 minutes. How can they achieve this with minimal WAN traffic?
SnapVault the Database files every hour and SnapMirror the logs every 5 minutes
21) How can you make a SnapVault destination volume read-write?
SnapMirror/SnapVault bundle
22) Can the NearStore VTL can be added to an existing Fibre Channel Fabric without removing the Tape device?
Yes
23) A customer has a volume with 5 qtrees and assorted directories and files not in the qtrees. How
24) can the customer backup that data not in the qtrees?
Use SnapVault command line
25) A customer has a volume on a filer that contains 10 qtrees. All but one of the qtrees have similar change rates and size. The volume is scheduled to transfer every morning at 1 AM. The 9 qtrees with similar characteristics all transfer within 15 minutes and the tenth qtree takes two hours to complete. When will the SnapVault transfer be completed for those qtrees?
03:05 hours
26) Customer wants to run 40 OSSV relationships concurrently. Which system can support this as a destination with the Near store personality?
FAS3050
27) What is the minimum RPO available using SnapVault schedules?
1 hour
28) Can SnapVault can replicate data over Fibre Channel between the primary and secondary storage systems?
Nope.Not possible
29) How can we tune a NearStore VTL system?
Nothing, the system is auto-tuning.
30) What would you use to get a centralized view or SnapVault backups in a NetApp FAS environment?
Data Fabric Manager
31) What is required to ensure that a DataFort configuration is ready for disaster recovery?
DataFort current database, Recovery Cards, Recovery Card password
32) When are Recovery Cards required in the trustee key-sharing process?
During the establishment of only the trustee relationship
33) Give details on disk and tape I/O in Datafort environment :-
Disk and tape I/O cannot be combined through the same standalone DataFort. Disk and tape I/O cannot be combined through the same cluster.
34) How many additional FC-switch ports are required for an inline direct-attached FC-5XX DataFort?
0
35) If your recovery schema is two out of five, how many Recovery Cards do you need to remove a cluster member?
0
36) What are the indications a media type of duplex mode mismatch on the DataFort admin
interface?
The cluster continually aborts and reforms. The DataFort techdump takes a very long time to complete.
37) In SAN , you are restoring a deleted Cryptainer that was created in SAN . How can you find the keyID for the encrypted LUN?
By using the CLI command fcc key list
38) What is the purpose of the Key Policy setting for tapes?
It determines whether or not each tape has a unique key
39) Which factors should be considered when assessing the performance impact a DataFort
will have on an existing environment?
The number of devices connected to a specific DataFort
The combined speed of all devices connected to the DataFort
The device type, tape or disk, being connected to the DataFort
40) If your disk array will support 150 MB/s, approximately how long will it take you to complete the Encrypt Empty Disk Task on 100TB of disk space?
1 second
41) The E-Series DataFort Local ACL feature is designed to prevent unauthorized Windows
administrators from gaining Cryptainer access by adding themselves to which one?
The share ACL
42) Give some details on Cryptainer :-
One Cryptainer is created per LUN.
The original LUN ordering is always preserved for Port Mapped Cryptainer vaults
43) Which SCSI signaling and connector type is used by an S-Series DataFort?
LVD signal, VHDCI connector type
44) Which defense setting requires zeroization after rebooting with a low battery condition?
High
45) Which step is automatically performed when using host virtualization?
Granting Cryptainer access to virtualized hosts
46) Which filtering options does the network capture capability on the DataFort allow?
Filter on IP address, Filter on DNS hostname, Filter on port number, Filter on IP protocol, Filter using “and,” “or” and “not”
47) What can the E-Series DataFort net util tcpdump command capture?
Network packets going between DataFort client-side/server-side NIC and arbitrary machines
48) Which actions remove key material?
Zeroization of DataFort with destruction of its System Card, Deletion of all manually saved configdb files
49) Which settings do you use to enable the tape error recovery extension to the FC protocol?
dfc.disable_host_fc_tape; dfc.disable_storage_fc_tape
50) What can be used to share key material between different DataFort clusters?
A trustee relationship with key export/import, DataFort cloning, Key Translation in LKM software, Key Translation in LKM appliance
51) Give details about the DataFort appliance remote logging capabilities :-
All DataFort logs can be configured to be sent to a remote Windows-based server. DataFort log storage locations can be configured from the GUI or the CLI. DataFort logging can be configured to be sent to a remote syslog server.
52) Which FIPS certification does the FC520 have?
140-2, Level 3
53) Which two upgrades produce a zeroization of DataFort?
Upgrading from SAN 1.6 to SAN 2.2.0.1
Upgrading from SAN 1.8 to SAN 2.1
54) How can we verify a customer disaster recovery configuration ?
Be verified as functional before DataFort appliances are installed
55) Which methods allow movement of keys to two standalone LKM servers/appliances?
Establish link between LKM1 and LKM2 appliances
Register DataFort to both LKM servers and manually initiate a backup to LKM2
56) How do you ensure that operation trace logging is enabled?
Through the Logging Configuration page of the WebUI
By using the CL sys prop get command to view the setting of the sys.proc.syslogd.conf.op_trace property
57) What happens when the DataFort detects an intrusion?
The DataFort stops encrypting and decrypting data.
58) When should you use DataFort cloning as a key-sharing best practice?
Global default pool deployment
59) Which Solaris-specific file is used for target discovery for tape devices?
/kernel/drv/st.conf
60) Which two FC DataFort deployment options are supported?
Both storage and host ports connected to the same switch
The storage port connected to an edge switch and the host port connected to a core switch
61) In FC-Series 2.x, which two applications recognize application pool labels?
Symantec/Veritas NetBackup
EMC/Legato NetWorker
62) Which are the backup types that are available in Netbackup?
Differential Incremental Backup
Cumulative Incremental Backup
User Backup
User Archive
Full Backup
63) What is media multiplexing?
The process of sending concurrent-multiple backups from one or more clients to a single storage device and interleaving those images onto the media
64) What is avrd ?
The automatic volume recognition daemon on UNIX and process on Windows
65) What is bpadm?
An administrator utility that runs on NetBackup UNIX servers. It has a character-based, menu interface that can be run from terminals that do not have X Windows capabilities
66) What is a frozen image ?
A stable disk copy of the data prior to backup. A frozen image is created very rapidly, causing minimal impact on other applications. There are two basic types: copy-on-write and mirror
67) What is retention period ?
The length of time that NetBackup keeps backup and archive images. The retention period is specified on the schedule.
68) What is tape spanning ?
Using more than one tape to store a single backup image
69) What is TLD,TLH,TLM,TL4,TL8?
TLD-Tape Library DLT
TLH-Tape Library Half-inch
TLM-Tape Library Multimedia
TL4-Tape Library 4MM
TL8-Tape Library 8MM
70) What is the full form of DLT?
Digital-linear tape or tape drive type
71) What is image expiration and volume expiration?
Image expiration is the date and time when NetBackup stops tracking a backup image. Volume Expiration is the date and time when the physical media (tape) is considered to be no longer usable
72) What is Commandline to shutdown netbackup services on Windows Server?
bpdown
73) Which command is used to produce a report on Status of Netbackup Images?
bpimagelist
74) What is the use of command vmupdate?
Inventory the media contents of a robotic library
75) Commandline for Creating a copy of backups created by NetBackup?
bpduplicate
76) If you wanted to bypass netbackup commands and move a tape from slot 1 to drive 3 how would you do that?
robtest s1 d3
77) If I asked you to tell me if a client has Netbackup on it just by using a telnet command what would you do?
Telnet command used to check the bpcd port is running on the client
Telnet < host name> bpcd /13782
78) If you wanted to know what IP address netbackup was using to perform backups what command would you run and where would you run it?
use bpclntcmd –pn from master server to the client
Bpcover –r < host name>
79) If a media ID A04567 comes back and it is frozen, what are the steps to unfreeze it and move it back to scratch from the command line?
bpmedia –unfreez < Media ID>
Through GUI , right click on the media to move to scratch volume pool
80) What is the client version supported by NBU 6.x and 5.x masters?
The version support from 6.x to 4.5
81) What is the process of importing images and why do we import images?
There are two phases.
Phase I:  It builds the skeleton metadata
Phase II: It allows you to select which images to actually complete the import process
82) There are 1000 Client machines , 999 machines are transferring datas in good speed but one client machine is taking too long to transfer a datas .That is backup should complete within 2 hours but after 12 hours and more the data transfer is still happening why?
Please check the Network bandwidth. BPTM,bpbrm on both master and media server and bpbkar and bpcd logs on clients. I am appreciated if any one give more information on this.
83) There is a Tape library with 10 drives.Can we able to create 2 Storage units?
As per my knowledge. N no. of storage units you can create. But mail criteria to create a storage unit is.
1: It should be same robot controller
2: It should be same library
3: It should be same media server connected
4: It should be same Density

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EMC Interview Questions


1) What information is displayed on the Availability Tracking screen?
The amount of planned downtime of a managed resource.
2) What causes the data source to report an unknown state?
The agent failed or shut down
3) How should you determine which ports to use for the AAM installation?
Use the ft_setup script to view available ports during installation
4) Which two tasks can occur on a secondary agent in EMC environment?
Restart the backbone, Maintain a copy of the database
5) A system administrator is monitoring the AAM domain and notices that a Resource Group is in the unknown state. What does this state indicate?
The agent on the node hosting the Resource group is in the failed state
6) Where is the initial microcode program load file – IMPL.bin – stored in Symmetrix?
Service Processor and Director boards
7) How are disks accessed by UNIX hosts?
Using device special files
8) What are iSCSI naming conventions?
iQN, EUI
9) How does TimeFinder/Snap save disk space while providing full access to theoriginal data on the snapshot copy?
It creates pointers to the original data
10) What is the difference between theNSXXXG and the NSXXX?
NSXXXG allows the sharing of back-end storage with other hosts
11) Which is monitored by the ControlCenter Host agent?
Windows 2000 disk
12) What is the benefit of SRDF/Automated Replication solution ?
The SRDF/Automated Replication solution provides a copy of the data on the Target device, which will be several minutes to hours behind the Source
13) What is the purpose of a TimeFinder/Mirror reverse split operation?
The BCV will synchronize from its mirror
14) What is the correct sequence for starting a ControlCenter component?
Repository, Server, Store
15) After a client has presented information to be stored on Centera, what is the next step?
Unique Content Address is calculated
16) What is the purpose of Dynamic Mirror Service Policy for Symmetrix?
It uses both M1 and M2 mirrors to fulfill read requests as quickly as possible
17) Which views in the ControlCenter Console can be used to monitor the environment?
Relationship, Topology
18) What is a feature of both TimeFinder/Mirror and TimeFinder/Mirror Clone?
Identical storage capacity as the Source device
19) How many octets in a default Class B IPv4 address make up the network portion?
2
20) What is the maximum number of Blades supported in the NSX range of equipment?
8
21) How many optical network ports are available on a NSX Blade?
2
22) learnersreference.com has a primary CX600 array and a secondary CX400 array. learnersreference.com wants to do data backup on the secondary site while the applications are still running on the primary site. How can bellbang.com accomplish this goal?
MirrorView and SnapView
23) Which best describes a Fan-out Ratio for a SAN attached array?
The qualified maximum number of initiators that can access a single Target port through a SAN
24) Which web interfaces can be used to manage standalone M-Series switches?
EWS
25) Which components are required in order to enable write caching in a CLARiiON array?
2 power supplies, 2 storage processors, 2 LCC cards and at least one standby power supply
26) Which is not a CLARiiON High Availability feature?
Dual consoles
27) What are Celerra Replicator features?
Point-in-time copy over an IP network, Only sends changed data over the IP network
28) Which types of disk drives are currently used on CLARiiON CX series storage systems?
Dual ported Fibre Channel disk drives and ATA disk drives
29) What is the function of the Control Center infrastructure?
Stores data for objects
30) What are characteristics of cache memory on a CLARiiON array?
Write cache is always mirrored, Page size is set for the array
31) In a Symmetrix, what is Parity RAID?
Difference data that are results of XOR calculation passed between drives by Das
32) Which protocol uses TCP/IP to tunnel Fibre Channel frames?
FCIP
33) Which network based backup solution maintains both NFS and CIFS attributes?
NDMP based backups
34) Which types of disk drives are currently used on CLARiiON CX series storage systems?
Dual ported Fibre Channel disk drives and ATA disk drives
35) What are features of Celerra Replicator?
Synchronous data recovery, Point-in-time copy over an IP network
36) What is the function of the Control Center infrastructure?
Stores data for objects
37) What are characteristics of cache memory on a CLARiiON array?
Write cache is always mirrored. Page size is set for the array
38) Which protocol uses TCP/IP to tunnel Fibre Channel frames?
FCIP
39) Which network based backup solution maintains both NFS and CIFS attributes?
NDMP based backups
40) Which product is used to create Logical Volumes on a Symmetrx system?
Control Center Symmetrix Manager
41) Which Symmetrix connectivity options can be used with mainframe hosts?
ESCON and FICON
42) Which control center view provides a single graphical view of the whole environment, including consolldated alters and threshold charts?
At A Glance
43) What is a benefit of using zoning in a SAN?
Security at the switch port level
44) What is a characteristic of enterprise directors?
Fully redundant components
45) Which protocol is used by open system hosts to access block level storage over IP?
ISCSI
46) How is free maintained in the CLARIION write cache?
Cache is flushed to the driver during I/O only the least -recently used page are flushed
47) Which symmetric presents devices to hosts?
Channel Director
48) In a Centera, what is an Access Profile?
Used by applications to authenticate to a Cluster
49) What is a characteristic of Centera?
Single instance storage
50) What is the Address Resolution Protocol responsible for resolving in Direct Routing?
The MAC address of a known IP address
51) How are characters transmitted in Synchronous transmissions ?
Multiple characters are transmitted at a time
52) What is the Address Resolution Protocol responsible for resolving in Indirect Routing?
The MAC address of the Default gateway
53) What is a function of NetWorker?
Centralize and automate backup and recovery
54) What are features of a NetWorker storage node?
Manages devices, generates tracking data, and supports multiplexing
55) With IP version four (IPv4) addresses, how many octets make up the address?
4
56) With IPv6, what is the size of the address space?
128 bits
57) How is metadata passed in NDMP2D backup ?
Metadata passes over the network infrastructure
58) A Windows client must perform which operation to access a NAS advertised connection point?
Map
59) A Windows client must perform which operation to access a NAS advertised connectionpoint?
Map
60) What is the final step when retrieving an object in the Centera environment?
Centera authenticates request and delivers object
61) What is the first step or event when storing an object in a Centera environment?
Unique Content Address is calculated
62) What is a characteristic of a Content Address in a Centera?
Location-independent
63) What do VLANs reduce?
The router traffic overhead in the network infrastructure
64) What is a characteristic of Centera fixed content?
Unalterable
65) How does NetBIOS handle name resolution?
Makes use of an /mhosts/file for local administration of name resolution
66) What is the second step or event when storing an object in a Centera environment?
Object is sent to Centera via Centera API over IP
67) What best describes the TimeFinder Full Establish operation between a Standard and BCV device pair?
Change the status of the BCV to Not Ready; copy the entire contents of the Standard device to the BCV
68) What is the purpose of Dynamic Mirror Service Policy for Symmetrix?
It uses both M1 and M2 mirrors to fulfill read requests as quickly as possible.
69) What are the data types supported in NAS?
File level
70) Which views in ControlCenter Console displays Front End Directors, Disk Directors, and all the devices for a Symmetrix array?
Visual Storage
71) What is the purpose of the Masking ControlCenter Task Bar in ControlCenter?
Storage Allocation
72) Which NetWorker servers can NetWorker Management Console manage?
All NetWorker servers in the enterprise
73) What does the OSI Data Link layer provide?
Data encapsulation
74) What tool is used by service personnel to troubleshoot the Centera?
Centera Viewer
75) Is AVM used by default when creating volumes with the GUI?
Yes. It is used by default when creating volumes with the GUI
76) Give name of a dynamic routing protocol :-
OSPF
77) What is a feature of SnapView Clones?
Copy requires same space as Source LUN
78) In a CLARRiiON array, a read cache operation begins when host requests data. What is the next step in the process?
The storage processor recognizes that the requested data is an cache memory, and retrieves the data
79) Which access method id used for file sharing over an IP network?
NAS
80) Which is a valid Fibre Channel Topology?
Switched Fabric
81) A read cache miss operation on a Symmetrix has several steps. The first step is that the hostsends a read request. What is the next step?
The Channel Director checks the track table.
82) At what percentage of cache capacity does high water mark cache flushing initiate in a CLARiiONsystem at the default setting?
80%
83) In a CLARRiiON array, a read cache operation begins when host requests data. What is the nextstep in the process?
The storage processor recognizes that the requested data is an cache memory, and retrieves the data
84) In ControlCenter, what does the Masking ControlCenter Task Bar do?
Storage Allocation
85) What determines the order data is flushed from Symmetrix Global Cache Memory?
Age-link-chain
86) Which two types of storage connectivity are associated with block level data?
DAS and SAN
87) Which protocol is used by open systems hosts to access block level storage over IP?
ISCSI
88) What is a characteristic of file level host storage access?
Data is accessed using NFS, CIFS, and FTP
89) Which Symmetrix connectivity options can be used with Open Systems and Windows Hosts?
Fibre Channel and SCSI
90) What are characteristics of a Content Address in a Centera?
Location-independent, Globally unique
91) Which Symmetrix system uses a two bus architecture that consists of an “X” nad a “Y” bus?
Symmetrix 4.8
92) What is a characteristic of Connectrix enterpise directors?
Fully redundant components
93) Which load balancing policy available in PowerPath relates to path failover only?
Request
94) What is Windows NT security account manager?
It is the database containing the identity of the users and their credentials
95) What is the function of the Automated Resource Manager – Storage Provisioning Services
component of ControlCenter?
Reports key historical performance data
96) In a Symmetrix, what is Dynamic Sparing?
One or more disk drives that used when Symmetrix detects a potentially failing or failed device
97) How does TimeFinder/Snap save disk space while providing full access to the original data on the snapshot copy?
It creates pointers to the original data
98) Can NAS clients access data that are physically separate?
Yes. They can access data irrespective of their physical locality
99) Give name of network topology popularly adopted in storage infrastructure?
Ring,Bus
100) Which is a feature of both TimeFinder/Mirror andTimeFinder/Mirror Clone?
Identical storage capacity as the Source device